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Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education

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Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming EducationThis thesis formulates and evaluates a pedagogical technique whose goal is to help beginners learn the basics of computer programming. The technique, visual program simulation (VPS), involves the learner in interactive simulations in which the learner takes on the role of the computer as the executor of a program. The student uses a given visualization of a so-called notional machine, an abstract computer, to illustrate what happens in memory as the computer processes the program. The purpose of these simulations is to help the beginner learn to reason about program execution, a skill whose development has been identified as a major challenge in introductory programming education. VPS promotes effective learning by seeking to cognitively engage the learner with a visualization. It can be made practical through visualization software. VPS software may also automatically assess students' simulations and provide personal feedback, which is a valuable asset especially in the large classes that are typical of introductory courses.
The thesis contributes to VPS in four ways. First, it formulates the concept of visual program simulation and outlines ist underpinnings in terms of learning theory. Second, it presents a new software prototype that facilitates the use of VPS in practice. Third, it reports on a preliminary empirical evaluation of VPS and the software in the context of an introductory programming course. Fourth, it makes recommendations on the use of VPS in teaching and the further development of VPS tools, which arise from the empirical work.
The findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of VPS suggest that it is a promising pedagogical approach that helps many students learn programming. At the same time, the evaluation highlights certain important weaknesses. The purpose of VPS is not obvious to many students. Care must be taken to ensure that students develop a rich understanding of what VPS is and what they stand to gain from it. For best results, it is recommended that VPS be tightly integrated into the teaching and learning environment. The results from a controlled experiment further indicate that the short-term learning benefits of a VPS assignment are heavily dependent on which interactions the assignment demands from students. This implies that extreme care must be taken in the design of VPS systems and specific assignments so that required user interactions are aligned with intended learning goals.
On a more general level, the thesis serves as an example of educational tool development that is grounded in learning theory and informed by empirical evaluations. A fairly broad review of the literature on learning and teaching introductory programming is also contributed.
Von Juha Sorva in der Dissertation Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education (2012)

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Personen
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Tuukka Ahoniemi, Kirsti Ala-Mutka, Lorin W. Anderson, Michal Armoni, Michael E.Caspersen, D.P. Ausubel, Tapio Auvinen, Michael Barg, Roman Bednarik, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Jens Bennedsen, B. S. Bloom, Charles Boisvert, Shirley Booth, Benedict du Boulay, Jonas Boustedt, Matt Bower, John Seely Brown, Jerome S. Bruner, Angela Carbone, Michael E. Caspersen, Mike Clancy, Richard E. Clark, Allan Collins, D. E. Comer, Kate Crawford, Nell B. Dale, Peter Denning, Paul Denny, F. Détienne, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Hubert L. Dreyfus, S. Dreyfus, Tommy Dreyfus, David Dunning, Gil Ebel, Anna Eckerdal, Albrecht Ehlert, Allison Elliott Tew, Alan Fekete, John D. Ferguson, Colin J. Fidge, Sally Fincher, Vashti Galpin, Erich Gamma, Tina Götschi, Tony Greening, David Gries, Scott Grissom, Mark Guzdial, John Hamer, Richard Helm, Juha Helminen, Jacob Hendrickx, J.-M. Hoc, Owen Hollands, Meriel Huggard, Dan Ingalls, Essi Isohanni, Hannu-Matti Järvinen, Ralph Johnson, Ted Kaehler, Ville Karavirta, Alan Kay, Judy Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Jeffrey H. Kingston, Paul A. Kirschner, Dieter Klaudt, Gary Klein, Maria Knobelsdorf, Michael Kölling, Steve Kollmansberger, Ari Korhonen, David R. Krathwohl, Justin Kruger, Marja Kuittinen, Susumu Kunifuji, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Mikko Laakso, Essi Lahtinen, Raymond Lister, Mike Lopez, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Linxiao Ma, Lauri Malmi, John Maloney, Robert McCartney, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Suvi Melakoski-Vistbacka, Mihail Mihaylov, George Miller, Motoki Miura, John Monk, Jan Erik Moström, Michael C. Mulder, Orna Muller, Brad Myers, Niko Myller, Seppo Nevalainen, S. E. Newmann, Jakob Nielsen, Tim O'Shea, David B. Palumbo, John F. Pane, Andrew Patterson, Randy Pausch, Roy Pea, J. Mark Pullen, Helen C. Purchase, Bruce Quig, Noa Ragonis, Chotirat Ann Ratanamahatana, L. B. Resnick, Phil Robbins, Anthony Robins, Marc Roper, John Rosenberg, Isla Ross, Guido Rößling, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Jorma Sajaniemi, Jerome Saltmarsh, Kate Sanders, Ian D. Sanders, André L. Santos, Amitrajit Sarkar, R. Keith Sawyer, Carsten Schulte, Judy Sheard, L. Shulman, Beth Simon, Simon, Elliot Soloway, Juha Sorva, Christian Spannagel, Jim Spohrer, Ioanna Stamouli, John T. Stasko, Taro Sugihara, Erkki Sutinen, John Sweller, Ahmad Taherkhani, Grace Tan, Donna Teague, Matti Tedre, Ewan D. Tempero, Lynda Thomas, Errol Thompson, Allen B. Tucker, A. Joe Turner, Mark J. Van Gorp, Anne Venables, W. Visser, John Vlissides, Scott Wallace, Jacqueline L. Whalley, Murray Wood, Cecile Yehezkel, Paul R. Young, Carol Zander, Andreas Zendler

Begriffe
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Fehlvorstellungen / misconceptions, Fehlvorstellungen beim Programmieren, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich bedingten Anweisungen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Initialisierung, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Kontrollstrukturen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Rekursion, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Schleifen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Variablen, notional machine, OOPobject oriented programming, Programmierenprogramming, Programmierkonzepteprogramming concepts, programming by demonstrationprogramming by demonstration, Rekursionrecursion
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1956   Taxonomy of educational objectives (B. S. Bloom) 1, 1, 3, 5, 2, 3, 2, 2, 8, 4, 13, 61322563017
1960 local  The Process of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 14, 13, 3, 2, 1, 3, 2, 3, 10, 5, 10, 6841662672
1968 Educational Psychology (D.P. Ausubel) 36000
1979 local  On Knowing (Jerome S. Bruner) 5, 9, 6, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 6, 1, 7, 2312172
1986  local  Mind over Machine (Hubert L. Dreyfus, S. Dreyfus) 10, 1, 4, 4, 2, 5, 4, 2, 7, 5, 9, 44014947511
1988  local  Studying the Novice Programmer (Elliot Soloway, Jim Spohrer) 11, 1, 4, 5, 5, 3, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 161441442
1989 Knowing, Learning, and Instruction (L. B. Resnick) 17, 2, 3, 5, 2, 4, 3, 2, 7, 9, 8, 21311222172
1990 Psychology of Programming (J.-M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurçay, D.J. Gilmore) 11, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 2, 2, 6, 2, 8, 69396512
1994  local  Usability Engineering (Jakob Nielsen) 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 13, 9, 9, 7304475721
1995  local  Design Patterns (Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides) 17, 2, 2, 3, 1, 4, 2, 3, 8, 1, 10, 6451364342
1998 Sources of Power (Gary Klein) 4, 7, 7, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1, 6, 2, 6, 5415451
2000 Computer Science Education 2/20008, 7, 7, 1, 2, 8, 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 3183308
2000 A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing (Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl) 10, 12, 17, 3, 4, 3, 2, 2, 6, 2, 7, 360231417
2001 Computer Science Education 3/200110, 10, 1, 2, 5, 5, 1, 1, 6, 1, 9, 66136344
2001 Computer Science Education 4/20017, 10, 8, 2, 2, 5, 15, 1, 5, 2, 7, 1151277
2003 Computer Science Education 2/200312, 3, 1, 3, 6, 2, 1, 1, 6, 1, 8, 12281345
2003 Computer Science Education 4/200310, 9, 2, 2, 3, 29, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2, 6596389
2003 SIGCSE 2003 (Scott Grissom, Deborah Knox, Daniel T. Joyce, Wanda Dann) 11, 1, 2, 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, 7, 5, 13, 3102253309
2004 Computer Science Education 2/200412, 9, 4, 1, 3, 7, 5, 1, 6, 1, 11, 1491347
2005 Computer Science Education 1/200513, 12, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 1, 6, 1, 8, 2672323
2005 Computer Science Education 2/200510, 8, 1, 3, 3, 3, 30, 1, 6, 3, 8, 2852282
2005 Computer Science Education 3/20055, 10, 11, 13, 2, 3, 18, 1, 6, 5, 5, 2452328
2005 ICER 2005 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 14, 1, 1, 5, 5, 3, 3, 2, 6, 5, 11, 327603420
2006 local  The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 18, 17, 1, 5, 4, 3, 3, 1, 6, 4, 6, 2786721133
2006 ICER 2006 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 10, 15, 18, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1, 7, 3, 10, 530615406
2007 Computer Science Education 2/20077, 7, 10, 2, 2, 2, 7, 1, 2, 1, 4, 2172283
2007 ITiCSE 2007 (Janet Hughes, D. Ramanee Peiris, Paul T. Tymann) 22, 9, 10, 3, 6, 4, 4, 3, 7, 5, 13, 3552643985
2007 ICER 2007 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 14, 12, 1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 6, 5, 7, 433464408
2008 Computer Science Education 3/200810, 16, 1, 1, 3, 3, 6, 1, 6, 2, 10, 3263265
2008 Computer Science Education 4/20089, 3, 1, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, 6, 2, 10, 34123336
2008 local  Reflections on the Teaching of Programming (Jens Bennedsen, Michael E.Caspersen, Michael Kölling) 6, 2, 1, 2, 3, 3, 1, 1, 6, 1, 12, 43104411
2008 ITiCSE 2008 (June Amillo, Cary Laxer, Ernestina Menasalvas Ruiz, Alison Young) 14, 5, 5, 10, 4, 11, 4, 3, 10, 15, 14, 73527471474
2008 ICER 2008 (Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister, Mike Clancy) 6, 1, 4, 5, 2, 4, 2, 1, 7, 4, 10, 150441417
2009 ITiCSE 2009 (Patrick Brézillon, Ingrid Russell, Jean-Marc Labat) 2, 3, 8, 7, 2, 6, 9, 6, 12, 11, 9, 43931541191
2009 ICER 2009 (Michael J. Clancy, Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister) 10, 22, 1, 3, 5, 3, 1, 1, 6, 1, 11, 120331332
2010 Computer Science Education 1/201012, 16, 1, 1, 3, 4, 2, 1, 6, 2, 10, 29122318
2010 ITiCSE 2010 (Reyyan Ayfer, John Impagliazzo, Cary Laxer) 7, 6, 21, 10, 5, 7, 16, 13, 10, 12, 13, 62323761834
2010 ICER 2010 (Michael E. Caspersen, Michael J. Clancy, Kate Sanders) 11, 15, 1, 4, 4, 2, 2, 3, 9, 8, 5, 232612431
2011 Computer Science Education 1/20115, 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 46214368
2011 ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 5, 1, 13, 14, 2, 6, 10, 3, 10, 9, 15, 35731632848
2012 Computer Science Education 4/20128, 2, 1, 1, 3, 7, 1, 1, 6, 1, 8, 53105300
2013 Computer Science Education 3/201310, 1, 1, 6, 6, 7, 2, 1, 8, 3, 11, 222422485
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1956 local web  The Magical Number Seven (George Miller) 7, 1, 3, 4, 2, 3, 2, 2, 7, 6, 10, 561351676
1981 local  The black box inside the glass box (Benedict du Boulay, Tim O'Shea, John Monk) 5, 1, 1, 3, 1, 6, 5, 4, 7, 4, 11, 519145654
1986 local web  Those who understand (L. Shulman) 6, 3, 4, 5, 9, 5, 1, 6, 9, 3, 12, 491741522
1986 local web  Language‐Independent Conceptual «Bugs» in Novice Programming (Roy Pea) 10, 13, 2, 2, 2, 1, 4, 1, 7, 1, 9, 44164255
1986 local web  Learning to program = learning to construct mechanisms and explanations (Elliot Soloway) 15, 2, 2, 4, 2, 4, 2, 1, 7, 3, 11, 31493297
1989 local  On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 10, 16, 13, 2, 2, 4, 2, 1, 6, 4, 13, 5191052153
1989 local  Cognitive Apprenticeship (Allan Collins, John Seely Brown, S. E. Newmann) 3, 2, 3, 5, 2, 4, 3, 2, 7, 3, 10, 51031153146
1989 local web  Computing as a Discipline (Peter Denning, D. E. Comer, David Gries, Michael C. Mulder, Allen B. Tucker, A. Joe Turner, Paul R. Young) 14, 1, 4, 4, 2, 2, 2, 2, 7, 10, 13, 12271371
1989 local web  Taxonomies of Visual Programming and Program Visualization (Brad Myers) 5, 1, 3, 3, 2, 3, 2, 1, 5, 1, 9, 3573205
1990 local web  Expert Programming Knowledge: A Schema-based Approach (F. Détienne) 1100
1990 local web  Expert Software Design Strategies (W. Visser, J.-M. Hoc) 1100
1990 local web  Programming Language/Problem-Solving Research (David B. Palumbo) 13, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 6, 2, 11, 48234375
1994 Usability Heuristics (Jakob Nielsen) 1100
1997 local web  Back to the Future (Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, John Maloney, Scott Wallace, Alan Kay) 10, 16, 7, 2, 2, 6, 3, 1, 6, 2, 8, 41274971
1998 local web  Constructivism in Computer Science Education (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 14, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 10, 9, 14, 323273470
1999 local web  Unskilled and Unaware of It (Justin Kruger, David Dunning) 20, 14, 5, 3, 3, 5, 1, 1, 8, 2, 14, 319831283
2000 local web  Problem-Based Learning for Foundation Computer Science Courses (Judy Kay, Michael Barg, Alan Fekete, Tony Greening, Owen Hollands, Jeffrey H. Kingston, Kate Crawford) 1100
2001 local web  Studying the Language and Structure in Non-Programmers’ Solutions to Programming Problems (John F. Pane, Chotirat Ann Ratanamahatana, Brad Myers) 10, 4, 1, 1, 5, 4, 1, 2, 6, 1, 14, 45184442
2001 local web  An Empirical Evaluation of Using Constructive Classroom Activities to Teach Introductory Programming (Mark J. Van Gorp, Scott Grissom) 7, 9, 9, 2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 4, 6, 8, 4184313
2001 local web  The Network Workbench and Constructivism (J. Mark Pullen) 1100
2001 local web  Models and Areas for CS Education Research (Mike Clancy, John T. Stasko, Mark Guzdial, Sally Fincher, Nell B. Dale) 1100
2001 local web  Learning Computer Science and Engineering in Context (Shirley Booth) 2100
2003 local web  Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 19500
2003 local web  The BlueJ System and its Pedagogy (Michael Kölling, Bruce Quig, Andrew Patterson, John Rosenberg) 3100
2003 local web  Mental models of recursion (Tina Götschi, Ian D. Sanders, Vashti Galpin) 12, 1, 2, 2, 4, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 7, 74127257
2004 local web  Situated Learning in Computer Science Education (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 4100
2005 local web  An Experiment on Using Roles of Variables in Teaching Introductory Programming (Jorma Sajaniemi, Marja Kuittinen) 4300
2005 local web  A long-term investigation of the comprehension of OOP concepts by novices (Noa Ragonis, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 4100
2005 local web  A Survey of Automated Assessment Approaches for Programming Assignments (Kirsti Ala-Mutka) 8100
2005 local web  Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 12, 16, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 3, 6, 11, 446174620
2005 local web  Pattern oriented instruction and the enhancement of analogical reasoning (Orna Muller) 5, 6, 8, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 5, 3113156
2006 local web  Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work (Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller, Richard E. Clark) 14, 10, 1, 3, 2, 5, 3, 4, 5, 1, 10, 639216917
2006 local web  What do teachers teach in introductory programming? (Carsten Schulte, Jens Bennedsen) 10, 11, 13, 4, 1, 3, 4, 4, 1, 6, 10, 6486274
2006 local web  An experiment on short-term effects of animated versus static visualization of operations on program perception (Seppo Nevalainen, Jorma Sajaniemi) 5, 6, 9, 8, 2, 1, 2, 1, 6, 1, 6, 1131163
2006 local web  Object oriented programming and program correctness (Ioanna Stamouli, Meriel Huggard) 3, 8, 5, 4, 4, 3, 3, 7, 6, 2, 1, 5245146
2006 local web  Imagineering inauthentic legitimate peripheral participation (Mark Guzdial, Allison Elliott Tew) 5, 11, 12, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 8, 2372256
2006 local web  Affective effects of program visualization (Gil Ebel, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 3, 8, 5, 2, 2, 6, 1, 1, 6, 1, 4, 8128172
2007 local web  The contribution of visualization to learning computer architecture (Cecile Yehezkel, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Tommy Dreyfus) 1100
2007 Analyzing engagement taxonomy in collaborative algorithm visualization (Niko Myller, Mikko Laakso, Ari Korhonen) 2200
2007 Targeting program visualizations (Essi Lahtinen, Hannu-Matti Järvinen, Suvi Melakoski-Vistbacka) 1200
2007 local web  Instructional design of a programming course (Michael E. Caspersen, Jens Bennedsen) 5, 1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1311159
2007 local web  From Limen to Lumen (Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, Jan Erik Moström, Kate Sanders, Lynda Thomas, Carol Zander) 4, 9, 8, 2, 2, 4, 2, 1, 6, 3, 3, 6126181
2008 local web  Three traditions of computing (Matti Tedre, Erkki Sutinen) 1100
2008 local web  Process as content in computer science education (Andreas Zendler, Christian Spannagel, Dieter Klaudt) 3200
2008 Going SOLO to assess novice programmers (Judy Sheard, Angela Carbone, Raymond Lister, Beth Simon, Errol Thompson, Jacqueline L. Whalley) 5200
2008 A taxonomy of task types in computing (Matt Bower) 3200
2008 local web  Paving the Way for Computational Thinking (Mark Guzdial) 12, 1, 2, 2, 4, 3, 1, 1, 7, 4, 13, 35103373
2008 local web  Evaluating a new exam question (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Beth Simon) 16, 4, 1, 2, 4, 2, 1, 1, 6, 2, 10, 51495279
2008 local web  Relationships between reading, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming (Mike Lopez, Jacqueline L. Whalley, Phil Robbins, Raymond Lister) 12, 14, 3, 1, 4, 4, 1, 1, 6, 1, 3, 71437244
2009 Anchor garden (Motoki Miura, Taro Sugihara, Susumu Kunifuji) 1200
2009 Further evidence of a relationship between explaining, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming (Raymond Lister, Colin J. Fidge, Donna Teague) 8300
2009 Improving the mental models held by novice programmers using cognitive conflict and jeliot visualisations (Linxiao Ma, John D. Ferguson, Marc Roper, Isla Ross, Murray Wood) 2200
2009 Rubyric (Tapio Auvinen, Ville Karavirta, Tuukka Ahoniemi) 1200
2009 Computer science student transformations (Jan Erik Moström, Jonas Boustedt, Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, Kate Sanders, Lynda Thomas, Carol Zander) 1200
2009 A visualisation tool for the programming process (Charles Boisvert) 1200
2009 local web  Empirical comparison of objects-first and objects-later (Albrecht Ehlert, Carsten Schulte) 9, 4, 6, 1, 6, 2, 1, 3, 8, 1, 7, 2312391
2009 local web  A closer look at tracing, explaining and code writing skills in the novice programmer (Anne Venables, Grace Tan, Raymond Lister) 13, 14, 13, 3, 2, 1, 1, 1, 5, 2, 2, 7937203
2010 local web  Learning edge momentum (Anthony Robins) 7600
2010 Helping students build a mental model of computation (Steve Kollmansberger) 2200
2010 From phenomenography study to planning teaching (Errol Thompson) 2200
2010 Comparison of OOP first and OOP later (Albrecht Ehlert, Carsten Schulte) 1300
2010 local  Objects Never? Well, Hardly Ever! (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 6, 7, 8, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 7, 9249189
2010 local web  Characterizing research in computing education (Lauri Malmi, Judy Sheard, Simon, Roman Bednarik, Juha Helminen, Ari Korhonen, Niko Myller, Juha Sorva, Ahmad Taherkhani) 13, 13, 1, 3, 4, 4, 1, 1, 7, 6, 6, 1311239
2010 local web  Behind the curtain (Essi Isohanni, Maria Knobelsdorf) 6, 10, 7, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3213118
2011 local web  Investigating and improving the models of programming concepts held by novice programmers (Linxiao Ma, John D. Ferguson, Marc Roper, Murray Wood) 8, 2, 4, 5, 1, 3, 3, 1, 7, 3, 13, 45174382
2011 local  Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 14, 19, 2, 5, 5, 3, 2, 2, 5, 8, 8, 427104651
2011 Understanding the syntax barrier for novices (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Ewan D. Tempero, Jacob Hendrickx) 7200
2011 AGUIA/J (André L. Santos) 1200
2011 AnimalSense (Guido Rößling, Mihail Mihaylov, Jerome Saltmarsh) 1300
2011 Relationship between text and action conceptions of programming (Anna Eckerdal, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Mike Lopez, Amitrajit Sarkar) 2300
2012 local web  Contributing student pedagogy (John Hamer, Judy Sheard, Helen C. Purchase, Andrew Luxton-Reilly) 3100
2013 local web  Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 16, 18, 1, 6, 6, 4, 3, 1, 8, 11, 12, 320353503

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