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Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education

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This thesis formulates and evaluates a pedagogical technique whose goal is to help beginners learn the basics of computer programming. The technique, visual program simulation (VPS), involves the learner in interactive simulations in which the learner takes on the role of the computer as the executor of a program. The student uses a given visualization of a so-called notional machine, an abstract computer, to illustrate what happens in memory as the computer processes the program. The purpose of these simulations is to help the beginner learn to reason about program execution, a skill whose development has been identified as a major challenge in introductory programming education. VPS promotes effective learning by seeking to cognitively engage the learner with a visualization. It can be made practical through visualization software. VPS software may also automatically assess students' simulations and provide personal feedback, which is a valuable asset especially in the large classes that are typical of introductory courses.
The thesis contributes to VPS in four ways. First, it formulates the concept of visual program simulation and outlines ist underpinnings in terms of learning theory. Second, it presents a new software prototype that facilitates the use of VPS in practice. Third, it reports on a preliminary empirical evaluation of VPS and the software in the context of an introductory programming course. Fourth, it makes recommendations on the use of VPS in teaching and the further development of VPS tools, which arise from the empirical work.
The findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of VPS suggest that it is a promising pedagogical approach that helps many students learn programming. At the same time, the evaluation highlights certain important weaknesses. The purpose of VPS is not obvious to many students. Care must be taken to ensure that students develop a rich understanding of what VPS is and what they stand to gain from it. For best results, it is recommended that VPS be tightly integrated into the teaching and learning environment. The results from a controlled experiment further indicate that the short-term learning benefits of a VPS assignment are heavily dependent on which interactions the assignment demands from students. This implies that extreme care must be taken in the design of VPS systems and specific assignments so that required user interactions are aligned with intended learning goals.
On a more general level, the thesis serves as an example of educational tool development that is grounded in learning theory and informed by empirical evaluations. A fairly broad review of the literature on learning and teaching introductory programming is also contributed.
Von Juha Sorva in der Dissertation Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education (2012)

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Personen
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Tuukka Ahoniemi, Kirsti Ala-Mutka, Lorin W. Anderson, Michal Armoni, Michael E.Caspersen, D.P. Ausubel, Tapio Auvinen, Michael Barg, Roman Bednarik, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Jens Bennedsen, B. S. Bloom, Charles Boisvert, Shirley Booth, Benedict du Boulay, Jonas Boustedt, Matt Bower, John Seely Brown, Jerome S. Bruner, Angela Carbone, Michael E. Caspersen, Mike Clancy, Richard E. Clark, Allan Collins, D. E. Comer, Kate Crawford, Nell B. Dale, Peter Denning, Paul Denny, F. Détienne, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Hubert L. Dreyfus, S. Dreyfus, Tommy Dreyfus, David Dunning, Gil Ebel, Anna Eckerdal, Albrecht Ehlert, Allison Elliott Tew, Alan Fekete, John D. Ferguson, Colin J. Fidge, Sally Fincher, Vashti Galpin, Erich Gamma, Tina Götschi, Tony Greening, David Gries, Scott Grissom, Mark Guzdial, John Hamer, Richard Helm, Juha Helminen, Jacob Hendrickx, J.-M. Hoc, Owen Hollands, Meriel Huggard, Dan Ingalls, Essi Isohanni, Hannu-Matti Järvinen, Ralph Johnson, Ted Kaehler, Ville Karavirta, Alan Kay, Judy Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Jeffrey H. Kingston, Paul A. Kirschner, Dieter Klaudt, Gary Klein, Maria Knobelsdorf, Michael Kölling, Steve Kollmansberger, Ari Korhonen, David R. Krathwohl, Justin Kruger, Marja Kuittinen, Susumu Kunifuji, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Mikko Laakso, Essi Lahtinen, Raymond Lister, Mike Lopez, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Linxiao Ma, Lauri Malmi, John Maloney, Robert McCartney, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Suvi Melakoski-Vistbacka, Mihail Mihaylov, George Miller, Motoki Miura, John Monk, Jan Erik Moström, Michael C. Mulder, Orna Muller, Brad Myers, Niko Myller, Seppo Nevalainen, S. E. Newmann, Jakob Nielsen, Tim O'Shea, David B. Palumbo, John F. Pane, Andrew Patterson, Randy Pausch, Roy Pea, J. Mark Pullen, Helen C. Purchase, Bruce Quig, Noa Ragonis, Chotirat Ann Ratanamahatana, L. B. Resnick, Phil Robbins, Anthony Robins, Marc Roper, John Rosenberg, Isla Ross, Guido Rößling, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Jorma Sajaniemi, Jerome Saltmarsh, Kate Sanders, Ian D. Sanders, André L. Santos, Amitrajit Sarkar, R. Keith Sawyer, Carsten Schulte, Judy Sheard, Judithe Sheard, L. Shulman, Beth Simon, Simon, Elliot Soloway, Juha Sorva, Christian Spannagel, Jim Spohrer, Ioanna Stamouli, John T. Stasko, Taro Sugihara, Erkki Sutinen, John Sweller, Ahmad Taherkhani, Grace Tan, Donna Teague, Matti Tedre, Ewan D. Tempero, Lynda Thomas, Errol Thompson, Allen Tucker, A. Joe Turner, Mark J. Van Gorp, Anne Venables, W. Visser, John Vlissides, Scott Wallace, Jacqueline L. Whalley, Murray Wood, Cecile Yehezkel, Paul R. Young, Carol Zander, Andreas Zendler

Begriffe
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Fehlvorstellungen beim Programmieren, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich bedingten Anweisungen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Initialisierung, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Kontrollstrukturen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Rekursion, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Schleifen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Variablen, notional machine, OOPobject oriented programming, Programmierenprogramming, Programmierkonzepteprogramming concepts, Rekursionrecursion
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1956  Taxonomy of educational objectives (B. S. Bloom) 5, 6, 3, 8, 6, 4, 11, 9, 7, 5, 4, 2952522673
1960   The Process of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 4, 10, 4, 9, 7, 5, 7, 10, 5, 7, 5, 5681652347
1968Educational Psychology (D.P. Ausubel) 31000
1979   On Knowing (Jerome S. Bruner) 1, 1, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 221261
1986    Mind over Machine (Hubert L. Dreyfus, S. Dreyfus) 6, 4, 4, 10, 10, 8, 15, 16, 8, 10, 11, 73514977014
1988   Studying the Novice Programmer (Elliot Soloway, Jim Spohrer) 1, 2, 1, 6, 4, 2, 5, 11, 3, 3, 2, 248442135
1989Knowing, Learning, and Instruction (L. B. Resnick) 3, 4, 3, 7, 4, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 5, 21181221834
1990Psychology of Programming (J.-M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurçay, D.J. Gilmore) 2, 2, 2, 3, 1, 1, 2, 6, 1, 2, 3, 18391266
1994    Usability Engineering (Jakob Nielsen) 2, 5, 1, 7, 4, 7, 6, 13, 1, 1, 2, 4304445349
1995    Design Patterns (Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides) 5, 9, 6, 10, 5, 6, 9, 10, 4, 2, 7, 3411333956
1998Sources of Power (Gary Klein) 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 2, 4314291
2000Computer Science Education 2/20002, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2182102
2000A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing (Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl) 4, 7, 3, 7, 4, 3, 4, 8, 6, 3, 4, 437241123
2001Computer Science Education 3/20012, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 34133119
2001Computer Science Education 4/20011, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 315366
2003Computer Science Education 2/20032, 1, 1, 3, 4, 2, 2, 6, 2, 2, 8, 1216812128
2003Computer Science Education 4/20031, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 4, 1, 2, 1, 1491143
2003SIGCSE 2003 (Scott Grissom, Deborah Knox, Daniel T. Joyce, Wanda Dann) 1, 1, 2, 2, 9, 4, 1, 1, 36224324
2004Computer Science Education 2/20044, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 8, 1, 1, 1491111
2005Computer Science Education 1/20053, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 1, 1, 2672102
2005Computer Science Education 2/20053, 3, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 264284
2005Computer Science Education 3/20052, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1, 2, 6, 1, 9, 153515101
2005ICER 2005 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 2, 2, 2, 1, 4, 4, 1, 2, 8, 2, 2, 315553125
2006   The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 4, 5, 3, 6, 10, 5, 10, 13, 7, 3, 12, 20486420763
2006ICER 2006 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 3, 3, 1, 7, 2, 4, 2, 6, 2, 1, 3, 320523150
2007Computer Science Education 2/20071, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2172108
2007ITiCSE 2007 (Janet Hughes, D. Ramanee Peiris, Paul T. Tymann) 4, 4, 3, 5, 5, 2, 4, 23, 6, 3, 3, 4372644584
2007ICER 2007 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 7, 4, 1, 3, 322453130
2008Computer Science Education 3/20083, 3, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 1, 1, 126178
2008Computer Science Education 4/20082, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 10121102
2008   Reflections on the Teaching of Programming (Jens Bennedsen, Michael E.Caspersen, Michael Kölling) 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 5, 1, 1, 12101208
2008ITiCSE 2008 (June Amillo, Cary Laxer, Ernestina Menasalvas Ruiz, Alison Young) 5, 4, 6, 11, 9, 6, 15, 39, 13, 16, 12, 152327415879
2008ICER 2008 (Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister, Mike Clancy) 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 7, 1, 1, 223412111
2009ITiCSE 2009 (Patrick Brézillon, Ingrid Russell, Jean-Marc Labat) 5, 7, 6, 5, 10, 4, 6, 33, 7, 2, 3, 5213155749
2009ICER 2009 (Michael J. Clancy, Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister) 4, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 4, 5, 2, 2, 21331284
2010Computer Science Education 1/20101, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 5, 1, 1, 6, 78117100
2010ITiCSE 2010 (Reyyan Ayfer, John Impagliazzo, Cary Laxer) 5, 13, 10, 10, 12, 12, 6, 22, 18, 18, 19, 1818236181112
2010ICER 2010 (Michael E. Caspersen, Michael J. Clancy, Kate Sanders) 1, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 9, 2, 1, 1, 321603148
2011Computer Science Education 1/20112, 2, 1, 2, 4, 2, 2, 5, 2, 2, 3, 15191122
2011ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 6, 10, 12, 12, 10, 10, 11, 43, 13, 13, 17, 1848317182248
2012Computer Science Education 4/20121, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1291102
2013Computer Science Education 3/20133, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 7, 6, 4, 5, 211422199
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1956    The Magical Number Seven (George Miller) 5, 5, 6, 3, 5, 9, 4, 7, 6, 4, 3, 350331389
1981   The black box inside the glass box (Benedict du Boulay, Tim O'Shea, John Monk) 1, 1, 1, 3, 7, 5, 4, 5, 1, 3, 2, 115141322
1986    Those who understand (L. Shulman) 2, 5, 1, 6, 6, 8, 5, 15, 17, 52, 57, 173448173562
1986    Language‐Independent Conceptual «Bugs» in Novice Programming (Roy Pea) 13, 13, 6, 3, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3415357
1986    Learning to program = learning to construct mechanisms and explanations (Elliot Soloway) 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 2129283
1989   On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 1, 1, 6, 4, 4, 1, 3, 5, 3, 4, 3, 4191041919
1989   Cognitive Apprenticeship (Allan Collins, John Seely Brown, S. E. Newmann) 2, 8, 4, 10, 5, 2, 7, 10, 2, 2, 2, 3951132782
1989    Computing as a Discipline (Peter Denning, D. E. Comer, David Gries, Michael C. Mulder, Allen Tucker, A. Joe Turner, Paul R. Young) 1, 1, 3, 6, 3, 3, 4, 9, 1, 2, 1, 22072145
1989    Taxonomies of Visual Programming and Program Visualization (Brad Myers) 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 137152
1990    Expert Programming Knowledge: A Schema-based Approach (F. Détienne) 1100
1990    Expert Software Design Strategies (W. Visser, J.-M. Hoc) 1100
1990    Programming Language/Problem-Solving Research (David B. Palumbo) 3, 5, 1, 1, 4, 5, 3, 5, 5, 2, 2, 28232154
1994Usability Heuristics (Jakob Nielsen) 1100
1997    Back to the Future (Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, John Maloney, Scott Wallace, Alan Kay) 1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 4, 3, 10, 2, 1, 7, 1112711746
1998    Constructivism in Computer Science Education (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 3, 1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 1, 6, 2, 2, 1, 312263183
1999    Unskilled and Unaware of It (Justin Kruger, David Dunning) 5, 2, 3, 2, 3, 1, 2, 2, 8, 15, 12, 118811702
2000    Problem-Based Learning for Foundation Computer Science Courses (Judy Kay, Michael Barg, Alan Fekete, Tony Greening, Owen Hollands, Jeffrey H. Kingston, Kate Crawford) 1100
2001    Studying the Language and Structure in Non-Programmers’ Solutions to Programming Problems (John F. Pane, Chotirat Ann Ratanamahatana, Brad Myers) 1, 2, 1, 2, 6, 2, 3, 6, 3, 2, 1, 15181205
2001    An Empirical Evaluation of Using Constructive Classroom Activities to Teach Introductory Programming (Mark J. Van Gorp, Scott Grissom) 2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 6, 3, 7, 161816106
2001    The Network Workbench and Constructivism (J. Mark Pullen) 1100
2001    Models and Areas for CS Education Research (Mike Clancy, John T. Stasko, Mark Guzdial, Sally Fincher, Nell B. Dale) 1100
2001    Learning Computer Science and Engineering in Context (Shirley Booth) 2100
2003    Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 13500
2003    The BlueJ System and its Pedagogy (Michael Kölling, Bruce Quig, Andrew Patterson, John Rosenberg) 3100
2003    Mental models of recursion (Tina Götschi, Ian D. Sanders, Vashti Galpin) 2, 2, 5, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 3, 2, 2311225
2004    Situated Learning in Computer Science Education (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 4100
2005    An Experiment on Using Roles of Variables in Teaching Introductory Programming (Jorma Sajaniemi, Marja Kuittinen) 4300
2005    A long-term investigation of the comprehension of OOP concepts by novices (Noa Ragonis, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 3100
2005    A Survey of Automated Assessment Approaches for Programming Assignments (Kirsti Ala-Mutka) 6100
2005    Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 2, 4, 5, 1, 6, 7, 1, 2, 9, 1, 2, 133171385
2005    Pattern oriented instruction and the enhancement of analogical reasoning (Orna Muller) 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 4, 111137
2006    Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work (Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller, Richard E. Clark) 3, 4, 2, 5, 8, 6, 7, 12, 3, 1, 2, 225212685
2006    What do teachers teach in introductory programming? (Carsten Schulte, Jens Bennedsen) 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3, 338366
2006    An experiment on short-term effects of animated versus static visualization of operations on program perception (Seppo Nevalainen, Jorma Sajaniemi) 1, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 213233
2006    Object oriented programming and program correctness (Ioanna Stamouli, Meriel Huggard) 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 224235
2006    Imagineering inauthentic legitimate peripheral participation (Mark Guzdial, Allison Elliott Tew) 2, 1, 2, 3, 3, 1, 1, 4, 2, 1, 1, 337359
2006    Affective effects of program visualization (Gil Ebel, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 312323
2007    The contribution of visualization to learning computer architecture (Cecile Yehezkel, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Tommy Dreyfus) 1100
2007Analyzing engagement taxonomy in collaborative algorithm visualization (Niko Myller, Mikko Laakso, Ari Korhonen) 1200
2007Targeting program visualizations (Essi Lahtinen, Hannu-Matti Järvinen, Suvi Melakoski-Vistbacka) 1200
2007    Instructional design of a programming course (Michael E. Caspersen, Jens Bennedsen) 1, 2, 1, 2, 4, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 131132
2007    From Limen to Lumen (Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, Jan Erik Moström, Kate Sanders, Lynda Thomas, Carol Zander) 4, 4, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 211240
2008    Three traditions of computing (Matti Tedre, Erkki Sutinen) 1100
2008    Process as content in computer science education (Andreas Zendler, Christian Spannagel, Dieter Klaudt) 1200
2008Going SOLO to assess novice programmers (Judy Sheard, Angela Carbone, Raymond Lister, Beth Simon, Errol Thompson, Jacqueline L. Whalley) 3200
2008A taxonomy of task types in computing (Matt Bower) 1200
2008    Paving the Way for Computational Thinking (Mark Guzdial) 2, 4, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 15101150
2008    Evaluating a new exam question (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Beth Simon) 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 6, 1, 267238
2008    Relationships between reading, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming (Mike Lopez, Jacqueline L. Whalley, Phil Robbins, Raymond Lister) 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 19, 2, 1, 363348
2009Anchor garden (Motoki Miura, Taro Sugihara, Susumu Kunifuji) 1200
2009Further evidence of a relationship between explaining, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming (Raymond Lister, Colin J. Fidge, Donna Teague) 3300
2009Improving the mental models held by novice programmers using cognitive conflict and jeliot visualisations (Linxiao Ma, John D. Ferguson, Marc Roper, Isla Ross, Murray Wood) 2200
2009Rubyric (Tapio Auvinen, Ville Karavirta, Tuukka Ahoniemi) 1200
2009Computer science student transformations (Jan Erik Moström, Jonas Boustedt, Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, Kate Sanders, Lynda Thomas, Carol Zander) 1200
2009A visualisation tool for the programming process (Charles Boisvert) 1200
2009    Empirical comparison of objects-first and objects-later (Albrecht Ehlert, Carsten Schulte) 5, 3, 2, 10, 2, 2, 8, 8, 5, 12, 4, 152115115
2009    A closer look at tracing, explaining and code writing skills in the novice programmer (Anne Venables, Grace Tan, Raymond Lister) 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 163118
2010    Learning edge momentum (Anthony Robins) 7500
2010Helping students build a mental model of computation (Steve Kollmansberger) 2200
2010From phenomenography study to planning teaching (Errol Thompson) 2200
2010Comparison of OOP first and OOP later (Albrecht Ehlert, Carsten Schulte) 1300
2010   Objects Never? Well, Hardly Ever! (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 124163
2010    Characterizing research in computing education (Lauri Malmi, Judy Sheard, Simon, Roman Bednarik, Juha Helminen, Ari Korhonen, Niko Myller, Juha Sorva, Ahmad Taherkhani) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 1, 1, 131153
2010    Behind the curtain (Essi Isohanni, Maria Knobelsdorf) 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 221222
2011    Investigating and improving the models of programming concepts held by novice programmers (Linxiao Ma, John D. Ferguson, Marc Roper, Murray Wood) 1, 2, 1, 4, 4, 1, 1, 6, 5, 2, 1, 25162136
2011   Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 3, 1, 2, 3, 7, 2, 5, 8, 1, 3, 2, 118101359
2011Understanding the syntax barrier for novices (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Ewan D. Tempero, Jacob Hendrickx) 5200
2011AGUIA/J (André L. Santos) 1200
2011AnimalSense (Guido Rößling, Mihail Mihaylov, Jerome Saltmarsh) 1300
2011Relationship between text and action conceptions of programming (Anna Eckerdal, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Mike Lopez, Amitrajit Sarkar) 1300
2012    Contributing student pedagogy (John Hamer, Judithe Sheard, Helen C. Purchase, Andrew Luxton-Reilly) 2100
2013    Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 2, 4, 1, 10, 7, 1, 4, 10, 10, 6, 2, 210352178

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