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Modality matters

Understanding the Effects of Programming Language Representation in High School Computer Science Classrooms
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Modality mattersComputation is changing our world. From how we work, to how we communicate and how we relax - few parts of our world have been left unaffected by computation and the technologies that it enables. The field of computer science and the ideas of the discipline are driving these changes, yet relatively little of it is present in contemporary K-12 education. Numerous local and national initiatives are underway to bring the powerful ideas of computing into classrooms around the world. An increasingly popular strategy being employed in this effort is the use of graphical, blocks-based programming environments like Scratch, Snap! and Alice. While these environments have been found to be effective at broadening participation with younger learners, open questions remain about their suitability in high school contexts. This dissertation uses a quasi-experimental, mixed methods design to understand the effects of blocks-based, text-based, and hybrid blocks-text programming environments in high school classrooms. Three custom-designed programming environments were created and used to understand how modality (blocks-based, text-based, and hybrid blocks/text) affects learners’ emerging understandings of core computer science concepts and their attitudes towards and perceptions of the discipline. Additionally, the study investigates if and how the different introductory programming modalities support learners’ transitions to more conventional textbased professional programming languages.
Findings from the study reveal that the modality matters. Differences were found with respect to students’ conceptualizations of programming constructs as well as student performance on content assessments and attitudinal surveys. The data show students in the Blocks condition scoring higher on content evaluations after a five-week curriculum and reporting higher levels of confidence, enjoyment, and interest in the field relative to students using an isomorphic text-based interface. However, these findings did not translate to greater success or better self-reported experiences upon transitioning to a professional, text-based programming language. After ten weeks of learning the Java programming language, students in the text condition showed comparable scores on content assessments and positive trends on attitudinal questions, whereas their blocks-based peers showed decreasingly levels of engagement and enjoyment. This study also demonstrates the potential of hybrid environments that blend features of blocks-based and text-based interfaces for providing the scaffolds and engagement of blocks-based tools with the perceived power and authenticity of text-based introductory environments. Collectively this work contributes to our understanding of the relationship between computational representations and learning programming, and can be used to inform the tools that will train the next generation of computationally literature citizens.
Von David Weintrop in der Dissertation Modality matters (2016)

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Personen
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Harold Abelson, Matthew Ahrens, Eric E. Allen, Amjad AlTadmri, Michal Armoni, Tiffany Barnes, Tim Bell, Mordechai Ben-Ari, M. Bloom, Karen Brennan, P. Brna, Neil C. C. Brown, Robert Bruce Findler, Amy Bruckman, Corinne Büching, Quinn Burke, Shannon Campe, Ebru Celikel Cankaya, Robert Cartwright, Robbin N. Chapman, Gail Chapman, Damon Chizuru Kawamoto, Albert Corbett, Allen Cypher, Jill Denner, Paul Denny, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Caitlin Duncan, Evelyn Eastmond, Stacey Ecott, Barbara J. Ericson, Barry S. Fagin, Matthias Felleisen, W. Feurzeig, Deborah A. Fields, Allan Fisher, Matthew Flatt, Ryan Garlick, Michael Giang, Adele Goldberg, Joanna Goode, R. Grant, T.R.G. Green, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Jacob Hendrickx, Poul Henriksen, Leanne M. Hirshfield, Yukio Idosaka, Matthew C. Jadud, Yasmin B. Kafai, Ken Kahn, Susumu Kanemune, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Kenneth R. Koedinger, Michael Kölling, Shriram Krishnamurthi, Yasushi Kuno, Henry H. Leitner, Colleen M. Lewis, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, David J. Malan, John Maloney, John H. Maloney, Jane Margolis, Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Patrick Mendelsohn, Laurence D. Merkle, Bertrand Meyer 0001, Faye Miller, Amon Millner, Eckart Modrow, Jens Mönig, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Brad Myers, Mitaro Namiki, Marie-Hélène Nienaltowski, Tomohiro Nishida, Donald A. Norman, Takashi Ohata, Seymour Papert, Andrew Patterson, Richard E. Pattis, Randy Pausch, Roy Pea, Michela Pedroni, Kylie A. Peppler, Kris Powers, Thomas W. Price, Bruce Quig, Mitchel Resnick, Anthony Robins, Eric Rosenbaum, John Rosenberg, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Natalie Rusk, Sanshiro Sakai, R. Benjamin Shapiro, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, David Canfield Smith, Cynthia Solomon, Juha Sorva, Jim Spohrer, Brian Stoler, Kerstin Strecker, Manabu Sugiura, Steve Tanimoto, Ewan D. Tempero, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Julia Walter-Herrmann, David Weintrop, Linda L. Werner, Uri Wilensky, Jeannette M. Wing, Stephen Wolfram

Aussagen
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Blockbasierte Sprachen erleichtern den Einstieg ins Programmierenblock programming interfaces improve novice programming performance
Blockbasierte Sprachen verhindern Syntaxfehler

Begriffe
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Alice.org, blockbasierte Programmierumgebungenvisual programming language, Informatikcomputer science, Informatik-Didaktikdidactics of computer science, Informatik-Unterricht (Fachinformatik)Computer Science Education, Informatikunterricht in der Schule, Programmierenprogramming, Programmiersprachenprogramming languages, Scratch
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1962 Thought and Language (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 52200
1969 local web  Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics (W. Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, M. Bloom, R. Grant, Cynthia Solomon) 9, 9, 8, 8, 17, 13, 2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 36113355
1980   The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 12, 12, 11, 13, 18, 16, 2, 2, 4, 1, 4, 123251471
1981 Karel the Robot (Richard E. Pattis) 9, 8, 8, 8, 10, 11, 10, 1, 1, 2, 2, 22132626
1982 local web  Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 15, 15, 17, 14, 28, 33, 5, 3, 6, 8, 5, 5, 62884565681
1986 local  Turtle geometry (Harold Abelson, Andrea DiSessa) 15, 11, 9, 9, 7, 10, 16, 8, 2, 1, 4, 21762351
1988  local  The Design of Everyday Things (Donald A. Norman) 9, 9, 15, 20, 18, 17, 3, 1, 2, 4, 3, 3, 2742125464
1990 Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 13, 13, 9, 11, 24, 15, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 21176221437
1990 Psychology of Programming (J.-M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurçay, D.J. Gilmore) 12, 12, 9, 9, 10, 11, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 29392488
1993  local  Revolution des Lernens (Seymour Papert) 18, 18, 21, 17, 24, 20, 6, 11, 10, 12, 6, 10, 48217648546
1994 local web  MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1994  local  Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams (Mitchel Resnick) 13, 11, 11, 10, 11, 13, 23, 3, 5, 1, 3, 2197122542
1994  local  Things That Make Us Smart (Donald A. Norman) 11, 7, 7, 12, 11, 12, 10, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4234343441
1997 SIGCSE 1997 (Curt M. White, Carl Erickson, Bruce J. Klein, James E. Miller) 10, 10, 10, 9, 12, 16, 1, 1, 5, 5, 4, 282182251
2001 Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 20, 20, 13, 12, 20, 23, 7, 4, 8, 4, 5, 61365762924
2001 Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 13, 8, 9, 9, 7, 8, 14, 12, 2, 2, 5, 128511402
2002  local web  Unlocking the Clubhouse (Jane Margolis, Allan Fisher) 12, 8, 8, 12, 8, 17, 19, 1, 1, 2, 4, 347273411
2002 SIGCSE 2002 (Judith L. Gersting, Henry MacKay Walker, Scott Grissom) 5, 5, 9, 7, 12, 14, 1, 1, 4, 4, 1, 4, 272882233
2002  local  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 17, 12, 13, 13, 8, 12, 11, 15, 5, 4, 5, 22722124928
2003 Computer Science Education 2/20038, 8, 7, 9, 11, 12, 3, 1, 3, 6, 2, 12181328
2003 Computer Science Education 4/200312, 5, 5, 7, 2, 10, 9, 2, 2, 3, 29, 1491373
2003  local  The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 17, 17, 14, 17, 14, 18, 6, 7, 3, 4, 3, 5, 522010354981
2003 SIGCSE 2003 (Scott Grissom, Deborah Knox, Daniel T. Joyce, Wanda Dann) 9, 9, 10, 8, 14, 11, 1, 2, 4, 5, 2, 382323280
2004 Computer Science Education 1/20048, 8, 8, 8, 11, 9, 2, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3021630342
2004 Computer Science Education Research (Sally Fincher, Marian Petre) 11, 11, 8, 9, 18, 17, 1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 117411378
2005 Computer Science Education 1/200510, 7, 7, 9, 8, 13, 12, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1671305
2006 local  The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 13, 9, 9, 10, 9, 18, 17, 1, 5, 4, 3, 3737431114
2007 SIGCSE 2007 (Ingrid Russell, Susan M. Haller, J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger) 2333900
2008 SIGCSE 2008 (J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger, Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial) 10, 10, 9, 13, 11, 14, 2, 1, 5, 5, 7, 3273823326
2009 The Computer Clubhouse (Yasmin B. Kafai, Kylie A. Peppler, Robbin N. Chapman) 10, 8, 8, 5, 10, 13, 11, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2762415
2009 ICER 2009 (Michael J. Clancy, Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister) 11, 9, 9, 11, 10, 10, 22, 1, 3, 5, 3, 120401312
2009 SIGCSE 2009 (Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial, Gary Lewandowski, Steven A. Wolfman) 10, 10, 9, 10, 14, 16, 1, 1, 4, 5, 4, 2233422298
2009 SIGCSE 2010 (Gary Lewandowski, Steven A. Wolfman, Thomas J. Cortina, Ellen Lowenfeld Walker) 11, 11, 8, 10, 15, 15, 1, 2, 5, 5, 5, 3303643346
2010 ITiCSE 2010 (Reyyan Ayfer, John Impagliazzo, Cary Laxer) 12, 12, 12, 15, 18, 18, 7, 6, 21, 10, 5, 7, 1622249161780
2011 ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 10, 10, 17, 16, 20, 32, 5, 1, 13, 14, 2, 6, 1047341102808
2011 local  LOG IN 168/20119, 8, 8, 7, 8, 13, 15, 1, 6, 4, 3, 35443686
2012 local web  Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education (Juha Sorva) 11, 11, 13, 14, 14, 25, 2, 4, 7, 8, 5, 212992515
2012 SIGCSE 2012 (Laurie A. Smith King, David R. Musicant, Tracy Camp, Paul T. Tymann) 10, 10, 12, 13, 18, 24, 3, 3, 9, 5, 3, 3326363416
2013 Computer Science Education 3/201310, 10, 7, 10, 14, 10, 1, 1, 6, 6, 7, 218522460
2013  local web  Computer Science Concepts in Scratch (Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 7, 7, 7, 9, 10, 14, 19, 1, 3, 3, 3, 19141408
2013   FabLab (Julia Walter-Herrmann, Corinne Büching) 10, 15, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 18, 8, 1, 3, 31461495
2013 SIGCSE 2013 (Tracy Camp, Paul T. Tymann, J. D. Dougherty, Kris Nagel) 10, 10, 13, 13, 14, 22, 2, 3, 7, 6, 4, 3276353394
2014  local  Connected Code (Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke) 13, 13, 10, 11, 24, 17, 3, 3, 6, 7, 3, 2151182952
2014 SIGCSE 2014 (J. D. Dougherty, Kris Nagel, Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt) 7, 7, 12, 8, 15, 19, 2, 2, 5, 5, 4, 3355983442
2014 WiPSCE 2014 (Carsten Schulte, Michael E. Caspersen, Judith Gal-Ezer) 12, 12, 13, 11, 16, 25, 1, 1, 4, 5, 4, 4513014702
2015 SIGCSE 2015 (Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt, Carl Alphonce, Jodi Tims) 18, 16, 13, 16, 17, 6, 6, 7, 4, 1, 1, 5429513198
2015 Proceedings of the Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2015, London, United Kingdom, November 9-11, 2015 (Judith Gal-Ezer, Sue Sentance, Jan Vahrenhold) 7, 7, 11, 9, 16, 14, 1, 1, 4, 3, 4, 2302562490
2015 ICER 2015 (Brian Dorn, Judy Sheard, Quintin I. Cutts) 12, 15, 15, 15, 14, 18, 20, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3442503511
2015 local web  Learner-Centered Design of Computing Education (Mark Guzdial) 12, 12, 9, 12, 19, 11, 2, 4, 8, 5, 4, 5141035609
2016 local  Introduction to Computing and Programming in Python (Mark Guzdial, Barbara J. Ericson) 12, 8, 8, 8, 8, 13, 17, 3, 2, 3, 2, 12281408
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1972 local web  Teaching Children To Be Mathematicians Versus Teaching About Mathematics (Seymour Papert) 7, 7, 10, 9, 14, 19, 9, 2, 1, 2, 1, 6, 1781328
1977 local  Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 12, 12, 11, 13, 22, 19, 1, 5, 3, 1, 5, 2341521951
1986 local web  Language‐Independent Conceptual «Bugs» in Novice Programming (Roy Pea) 10, 8, 8, 4, 10, 10, 13, 2, 2, 2, 1, 44161233
1989 local  On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 13, 11, 6, 6, 8, 10, 16, 13, 2, 2, 4, 2191022124
1989 local web  Taxonomies of Visual Programming and Program Visualization (Brad Myers) 5, 5, 5, 9, 10, 10, 5, 1, 3, 3, 2, 3, 2572186
1990 local web  Programming Languages in Education (Patrick Mendelsohn, T.R.G. Green, P. Brna) 9, 9, 7, 7, 10, 10, 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 4, 12121318
1994 local web  KidSim (David Canfield Smith, Allen Cypher, Jim Spohrer) 10, 10, 10, 7, 10, 11, 12, 5, 2, 3, 1, 11231403
1995 local web  ToonTalk (Ken Kahn) 7600
1997 local web  Undergraduate women in computer science (Allan Fisher, Jane Margolis, Faye Miller) 1600
2002 local web  DrJava (Eric E. Allen, Robert Cartwright, Brian Stoler) 1400
2003 local web  Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 18500
2003 local web  The BlueJ System and its Pedagogy (Michael Kölling, Bruce Quig, Andrew Patterson, John Rosenberg) 3100
2003 local web  Measuring the effectiveness of robots in teaching computer science (Barry S. Fagin, Laurence D. Merkle) 1400
2004 local web  The TeachScheme! Project (Matthias Felleisen, Robert Bruce Findler, Matthew Flatt, Shriram Krishnamurthi) 2100
2004 local web  Programming Environments for Novices (Mark Guzdial) 14, 11, 11, 11, 9, 11, 14, 13, 6, 2, 2, 210402333
2005 local web  A First Look at Novice Compilation Behaviour Using BlueJ (Matthew C. Jadud) 1100
2005 local web  Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 9, 9, 11, 12, 12, 16, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 145171596
2006 Cognitive Tutors (Kenneth R. Koedinger, Albert Corbett) 7000
2006 local web  Computational Thinking (Jeannette M. Wing) 11, 11, 12, 13, 18, 25, 4, 4, 4, 4, 3, 4, 41562141065
2007 local web  Through the looking glass (Kris Powers, Stacey Ecott, Leanne M. Hirshfield) 4400
2007 local web  Scratch for budding computer scientists (David J. Malan, Henry H. Leitner) 5400
2008 local web  Compiler error messages (Marie-Hélène Nienaltowski, Michela Pedroni, Bertrand Meyer 0001) 1500
2008 local web  Programming by choice (John H. Maloney, Kylie A. Peppler, Yasmin B. Kafai, Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk) 11400
2009 local web  Flexible, reusable tools for studying novice programmers (Matthew C. Jadud, Poul Henriksen) 8, 3, 3, 3, 7, 6, 4, 2, 2, 3, 5, 113198
2009 local web  A CS unplugged design pattern (Tomohiro Nishida, Susumu Kanemune, Yukio Idosaka, Mitaro Namiki, Tim Bell, Yasushi Kuno) 4400
2009 local web  Scratch: Programming for All (Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai) 16, 16, 13, 13, 19, 28, 3, 1, 4, 5, 4, 271282890
2010 local web  How programming environment shapes perception, learning and goals (Colleen M. Lewis) 10, 14, 14, 8, 9, 11, 12, 2, 5, 6, 7, 219102308
2010 Using alice in CS1 (Ryan Garlick, Ebru Celikel Cankaya) 4600
2011 local  Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 12, 12, 12, 10, 9, 14, 19, 2, 5, 5, 3, 220102624
2011 Understanding the syntax barrier for novices (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Ewan D. Tempero, Jacob Hendrickx) 7200
2011 local web  Wozu JAVA? (Eckart Modrow, Jens Mönig, Kerstin Strecker) 9, 9, 11, 12, 13, 21, 3, 5, 5, 2, 3, 33243915
2012 local web  The fairy performance assessment (Linda L. Werner, Jill Denner, Shannon Campe, Damon Chizuru Kawamoto) 3600
2013 local web  Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 11, 12, 12, 9, 11, 16, 18, 1, 6, 6, 4, 316353468
2013 Robobuilder (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 1400
2014 local  From Tools to Communities (Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke) 12, 12, 8, 8, 17, 12, 1, 5, 4, 2, 4, 22132239
2014 local web  Should your 8-year-old learn coding? (Caitlin Duncan, Tim Bell, Steve Tanimoto) 9, 9, 10, 10, 14, 14, 1, 1, 5, 5, 4, 114431441
2014 local web  Programming in the wild (Deborah A. Fields, Michael Giang, Yasmin B. Kafai) 11, 11, 4, 10, 14, 10, 2, 2, 6, 5, 1, 2, 28192520
2014 Exploring computer science (Gail Chapman, Joanna Goode) 9300
2015 local web  To Block or not to Block, That is the Question (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 10, 10, 8, 11, 21, 7, 3, 1, 4, 7, 1, 4, 716197436
2015 local web  Comparing Textual and Block Interfaces in a Novice Programming Environment (Thomas W. Price, Tiffany Barnes) 12, 10, 10, 10, 8, 13, 9, 2, 3, 4, 3, 46154297
2015 local web  Using Commutative Assessments to Compare Conceptual Understanding in Blocks-based and Text-based Programs (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 12, 12, 10, 8, 14, 13, 11, 1, 4, 4, 1, 3, 213252321
2015 local web  Frame-Based Editing (Michael Kölling, Neil C. C. Brown, Amjad AlTadmri) 10, 10, 7, 9, 10, 9, 5, 2, 3, 4, 4, 25112306
2015 local web  Language Migration in non-CS Introductory Programming through Mutual Language Translation Environment (Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Takashi Ohata, Manabu Sugiura, Sanshiro Sakai) 4400
2016 local web  Beyond Blocks (R. Benjamin Shapiro, Matthew Ahrens) 10, 10, 7, 10, 11, 7, 1, 2, 2, 2, 4, 12171273

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