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Starting from Scratch

Outcomes of Early Computer Science Learning Experiences and Implications for What Comes Next
David Weintrop, Alexandria K. Hansen, Danielle B. Harlow, Diana Franklin
Publikationsdatum:
Zu finden in: ICER 2018 (Seite 142 bis 150), 2018
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iconZusammenfassungen

More specifically, we answer the following research questions: What are examples of strategies that learners develop through introductory experiences with VBBPEs that future educators should be aware of? How and when might these strategies differ from what is taught in subsequent classes where text-based programming languages are used?
Von David Weintrop, Alexandria K. Hansen, Danielle B. Harlow, Diana Franklin im Konferenz-Band ICER 2018 im Text Starting from Scratch (2018)

Visual block-based programming environments (VBBPEs) such as Scratch and Alice are increasingly being used in introductory computer science lessons across elementary school grades. These environments, and the curricula that accompany them, are designed to be developmentally-appropriate and engaging for younger learners but may introduce challenges for future computer science educators. Using the final projects of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students who completed an introductory curriculum using a VBBPE, this paper focuses on patterns that show success within the context of VBBPEs but could pose potential challenges for teachers of follow-up computer science instruction. This paper focuses on three specific strategies observed in learners' projects: (1) wait blocks being used to manage program execution, (2) the use of event-based programming strategies to produce parallel outcomes, and (3) the coupling of taught concepts to curricular presentation. For each of these outcomes, we present data on how the course materials supported them, what learners achieved while enacting them, and the implications the strategy poses for future educators. We then discuss possible design and pedagogical responses. The contribution of this work is that it identifies early computer science learning strategies, contextualizes them within developmentally-appropriate environments, and discusses their implications with respect to future pedagogy. This paper advances our understanding of the role of VBBPEs in introductory computing and their place within the larger K-12 computer science trajectory.

Von David Weintrop, Alexandria K. Hansen, Danielle B. Harlow, Diana Franklin im Konferenz-Band ICER 2018 im Text Starting from Scratch (2018)

iconBemerkungen

It bears repeating that the goal of this work is to identify strategies students develop in VBBPEs that are different from those conventionally used in non-VBBPE introductory CS instruction. This is not meant to imply that VBBPEs are inappropriate for introductory computing contexts, instead, we seek to advance our understanding of how best to support learners as they progress along a CS learning trajectory.
Von David Weintrop, Alexandria K. Hansen, Danielle B. Harlow, Diana Franklin im Konferenz-Band ICER 2018 im Text Starting from Scratch (2018)

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Personen
KB IB clear
Harold Abelson, Michal Armoni, David Bau, Tim Bell, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Karen Brennan, Andrea DiSessa, Caitlin Duncan, Hilary A. Dwyer, Evelyn Eastmond, Brendan Foreman, Diana Franklin, Jeff Gray, Idit Harel, Danielle Harlow, Charlotte Hill, Nathan R. Holbert, Yasmin B. Kafai, Caitlin Kelleher, John Maloney, John H. Maloney, Tim Martinez, Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Amon Millner, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Takashi Ohata, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Kylie A. Peppler, Mitchel Resnick, Kathryn Rich, Eric Rosenbaum, Natalie Rusk, Sanshiro Sakai, Linda M. Seiter, Josh Sheldon, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Carla Strickland, Manabu Sugiura, Steve Tanimoto, Franklyn A. Turbak, Sherry Turkle, Daniel Watt, David Weintrop, Sylvia Weir, Uri Wilensky

Fragen
KB IB clear
Welche Programmiersprache eignet sich für die Schule?Which programming language is suitable for school?

Aussagen
KB IB clear
Blockbasierte Sprachen verhindern Syntaxfehler

Begriffe
KB IB clear
Alice.org, blockbasierte Programmiersprachenvisual programming language, Fehlvorstellungen beim Programmieren, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Initialisierung, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Variablen, Informatikcomputer science, Informatik in der Primarschule, Informatik-Didaktikdidactics of computer science, Informatik-Unterricht (Fachinformatik)Computer Science Education, Informatikunterricht in der Schule, Konstruktionismusconstructionism, LOGO (Programmiersprache)LOGO (programming language), Programmierenprogramming, Programmieren für KinderProgramming for kids, Programmierkonzepteprogramming concepts, Programmiersprachenprogramming languages, Scratch, Snap! (Programmiersprache), storytellingstorytelling
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1979    Final Report of the Brookline LOGO Project (Seymour Papert, Daniel Watt, Andrea DiSessa, Sylvia Weir) 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 11, 3, 1, 135193
1982    Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 12, 8, 8, 17, 20, 14, 12, 24, 11, 14, 21, 3022445305064
1986   Turtle geometry (Harold Abelson, Andrea DiSessa) 5, 1, 3, 2, 4, 5, 3, 1, 1, 9, 2, 51365134
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 3, 6, 9, 10, 7, 6, 9, 16, 4, 5, 5, 2984021096
2006   The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 4, 5, 3, 6, 10, 5, 10, 13, 7, 3, 12, 20486420763
2008Proceedings of the 39th SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, SIGCSE 2008, Portland, OR, USA, March 12-15, 2008 (J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger, Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial) 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 5, 2, 1, 2, 36342320
2011ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 6, 10, 12, 12, 10, 10, 11, 43, 13, 13, 17, 1846317182248
2013ICER 2013 (Beth Simon, Alison Clear, Quintin I. Cutts) 4, 3, 3, 7, 4, 1, 2, 15, 4, 1, 1, 2251032153
2014WiPSCE 2014 (Carsten Schulte, Michael E. Caspersen, Judith Gal-Ezer) 4, 4, 4, 3, 6, 4, 4, 13, 4, 9, 4, 5282315368
2015Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt, Carl Alphonce, Jodi Tims) 18, 16, 13, 16, 17, 6, 6, 7, 4, 1, 1, 5199001195
2017Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Seattle, WA, USA, March 8-11, 2017 (Michael E. Caspersen, Stephen H. Edwards, Tiffany Barnes, Daniel D. Garcia) 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 25, 5, 3, 4, 566615100
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
   Learnable Programming (David Bau, Jeff Gray, Caitlin Kelleher, Josh Sheldon, Franklyn A. Turbak) 2, 1, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 3, 3, 1, 2, 2320281
1990    Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete (Sherry Turkle, Seymour Papert) 1, 7, 6, 6, 9, 6, 8, 16, 5, 5, 2, 328243239
2005    Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 2, 4, 5, 1, 6, 7, 1, 2, 9, 1, 2, 130171385
2006   Constructionism (Yasmin B. Kafai) 2, 3, 1, 8, 8, 5, 8, 14, 5, 3, 10, 97339378
2008    Programming by choice (John H. Maloney, Kylie A. Peppler, Yasmin B. Kafai, Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk) 5400
2009    Scratch: Programming for All (Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai) 4, 9, 1, 6, 7, 5, 3, 12, 5, 3, 3, 545285524
2011   Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 3, 1, 2, 3, 7, 2, 5, 8, 1, 3, 2, 117101359
2013    Modeling the learning progressions of computational thinking of primary grade students (Linda M. Seiter, Brendan Foreman) 6, 6, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 181142
2014    Should your 8-year-old learn coding? (Caitlin Duncan, Tim Bell, Steve Tanimoto) 1, 4, 1, 6, 6, 1, 3, 11, 1, 2, 2, 110361182
2015    To Block or not to Block, That is the Question (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 4, 1, 1, 2, 1, 6, 5, 1, 3, 10, 1, 211192124
2015    Floors and Flexibility (Charlotte Hill, Hilary A. Dwyer, Tim Martinez, Danielle Harlow, Diana Franklin) 1300
2015    Language Migration in non-CS Introductory Programming through Mutual Language Translation Environment (Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Takashi Ohata, Manabu Sugiura, Sanshiro Sakai) 3400
2017    From Blocks to Text and Back (David Weintrop, Nathan R. Holbert) 1, 3, 2, 1, 6, 1, 1, 3, 1217119
2017    A Literature Review through the Lens of Computer Science Learning Goals Theorized and Explored in Research (Kathryn Rich, Carla Strickland, Diana Franklin) 3400

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