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A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis

Erstpublikation in: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Volume 3, Number 2 / Juni 2008
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Ulrike CreßIn the remainder of this article we will present a theoretical model of collaborative knowledge building with wikis by assuming a systemic perspective. In this context we will discuss the differential modes of operation in social and cognitive systems. Psychological research has described the cognitive processes responsible for individual learning as assimilation and accommodation. The question arises if there are equivalent processes in social systems such as wikis. Since we are convinced there are equivalent processes, we present this article to lead to a better understanding of the processes of collaborative knowledge building. In the following presentation, we will distinguish between the processes of externalization and internalization. We will clarify these processes by applying Wikipedia examples to our model in order to illustrate our notions and to provide an empirical basis. We will then describe the four processes of learning and knowledge building that result from the distinction between external and internal processes on the one hand, and between assimilation and accommodation on the other hand. Finally, we will describe the motivational aspects of collaborative knowledge building with wikis. We attribute people’s motivation to participate in collaborative knowledge building to their perception of incongruities and to the perceived valence of the topic.
Von Ulrike Creß, Joachim Kimmerle im Text A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis (2008)
Ulrike CreßWikis provide new opportunities for learning and for collaborative knowledge building as well as for understanding these processes. This article presents a theoretical framework for describing how learning and collaborative knowledge building take place. In order to understand these processes, three aspects need to be considered: the social processes facilitated by a wiki, the cognitive processes of the users, and how both processes influence each other mutually. For this purpose, the model presented in this article borrows from the systemic approach of Luhmann as well as from Piaget’s theory of equilibration and combines these approaches. The model analyzes processes which take place in the social system of a wiki as well as in the cognitive systems of the users. The model also describes learning activities as processes of externalization and internalization. Individual learning happens through internal processes of assimilation and accommodation, whereas changes in a wiki are due to activities of external assimilation and accommodation which in turn lead to collaborative knowledge building. This article provides empirical examples for these equilibration activities by analyzing Wikipedia articles. Equilibration activities are described as being caused by subjectively perceived incongruities between an individuals’ knowledge and the information provided by a wiki. Incongruities of medium level cause cognitive conflicts which in turn activate the described processes of equilibration and facilitate individual learning and collaborative knowledge building.
Von Ulrike Creß, Joachim Kimmerle im Text A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis (2008)

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Personen
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Carl Bereiter, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Axel Bruns, Todd Bryant, Ward Cunningham, Kushal Dave, Mark Guzdial, Hee-Seop Han, Sun-Gwan Han, Sal Humphreys, Colleen Kehoe, Soo-Hwan Kim, Bo Leuf, Niklas Luhmann, Kevin Makice, Humberto R. Maturana, Michele Notari, Seymour Papert, Christian Pentzold, Silvan Reinhold, Will Richardson, Jochen Rick, Marlene Scardamalia, Sebastian Seidenglanz, Gerry Stahl, David Turner, Francisco J. Varela, Fernanda B. Viégas, Chien-min Wang, Martin Wattenberg

Fragen
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Warum beteiligen sich Menschen an einem Wiki?

Begriffe
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AkkommodationAccommodation, Assimilationassimilation, Autopoieseautopoiesis, CSCLComputer-Supported Collaborative Learning, CSCWComputer-supported collaborative work, Lernenlearning, social softwaresocial software, Strukturelle Koppelung, Systemsystem, Weblogsblogging, Wikiwiki, Wiki in educationWiki in education, Wikipedia
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1969General System Theory (Ludwig von Bertalanffy) 2, 3, 1, 7, 4, 8, 12, 6, 5, 4, 10, 31823360
1980   Autopoiesis and Cognition (Humberto R. Maturana, Francisco J. Varela) 3, 6, 4, 8, 7, 5, 5, 6, 3, 7, 3, 4491143232
1982    Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 12, 8, 8, 17, 20, 14, 12, 24, 11, 14, 21, 3022745305064
1984   Soziale Systeme (Niklas Luhmann) 2, 5, 5, 10, 8, 3, 8, 9, 4, 4, 4, 6684062633
1996CSCL (Timothy D. Koschmann) 5, 6, 4, 7, 8, 6, 10, 14, 2, 1, 8, 129550121149
1997   Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft (Niklas Luhmann) 2, 4, 2, 7, 1, 3, 2, 5, 1, 1, 3, 139311336
2001    The Wiki Way (Bo Leuf, Ward Cunningham) 8, 8, 6, 13, 7, 5, 9, 12, 3, 9, 6, 81055483891
2002   Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (Gerry Stahl) 3, 4, 6, 7, 5, 5, 8, 9, 1, 1, 10, 214454211464
2005  WikiSym 200512, 8, 7, 12, 11, 4, 11, 13, 5, 5, 8, 116962111692
2006    Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms (Will Richardson) 9, 8, 4, 10, 8, 5, 6, 15, 8, 6, 2, 4237343166
2006Educause Quarterly 2/06 Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt 7, 5, 1, 2, 3, 1, 6, 1, 3, 6, 4, 34451667
2006International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Volume 13, 6, 3, 7, 6, 5, 5, 12, 2, 2, 5, 413944492
2006WikiSym 200611, 8, 5, 10, 9, 6, 10, 21, 6, 5, 6, 84712281686
2006Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing3, 10, 10, 11, 9, 12, 8, 19, 13, 6, 5, 16465161692
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1994    Computer Support for Knowledge-Building Communities (Marlene Scardamalia, Carl Bereiter) 3, 7, 3, 7, 7, 3, 4, 9, 1, 2, 11, 17487171479
2001   Beyond Adoption to Invention (Mark Guzdial, Jochen Rick, Colleen Kehoe) 4, 8, 2, 9, 9, 7, 10, 18, 6, 7, 6, 8262182043
2002Contributions to a Theoretical Framework for CSCL (Gerry Stahl) 2, 4, 2, 2, 4, 3, 2, 3, 6, 2, 1, 12161504
2004    Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with history flow Visualizations (Fernanda B. Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, Kushal Dave) 2, 4, 1, 7, 7, 1, 2, 6, 1, 1, 3, 2181321014
2004    Extending the Wiki Paradigm for Use in the Classroom (Chien-min Wang, David Turner) 3, 7, 1, 5, 4, 3, 9, 18, 8, 17, 18, 18121018711
2005    Wikis in Teaching and Assessment (Axel Bruns, Sal Humphreys) 3, 2, 1, 3, 1, 6, 4, 4, 7, 2, 7, 1230912820
2006    Situating CoWeb (Mark Guzdial, Jochen Rick) 2, 2, 1, 6, 7, 3, 5, 9, 2, 2, 3, 493741009
2006    Social Software in Academia (Todd Bryant) 4, 2, 2, 5, 3, 1, 3, 6, 5, 6, 6, 33243640
2006    PoliticWiki (Kevin Makice) 2, 2, 1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 2, 10, 2, 2, 12101424
2006    Foucault@Wiki (Christian Pentzold, Sebastian Seidenglanz) 2, 4, 3, 3, 3, 1, 4, 5, 2, 4, 5, 5265513
2006    WikiTrails (Silvan Reinhold) 3, 4, 2, 6, 5, 3, 1, 7, 2, 1, 3, 29132649
2006How to use a wiki in education (Michele Notari) 11200
2006The Study on Effective Programming Learning Using Wiki Community Systems (Soo-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seop Han, Sun-Gwan Han) 1200

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Perturbation, Weblogs in education

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