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A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis

Erstpublikation in: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Volume 3, Number 2 / Juni 2008
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Ulrike CreßIn the remainder of this article we will present a theoretical model of collaborative knowledge building with wikis by assuming a systemic perspective. In this context we will discuss the differential modes of operation in social and cognitive systems. Psychological research has described the cognitive processes responsible for individual learning as assimilation and accommodation. The question arises if there are equivalent processes in social systems such as wikis. Since we are convinced there are equivalent processes, we present this article to lead to a better understanding of the processes of collaborative knowledge building. In the following presentation, we will distinguish between the processes of externalization and internalization. We will clarify these processes by applying Wikipedia examples to our model in order to illustrate our notions and to provide an empirical basis. We will then describe the four processes of learning and knowledge building that result from the distinction between external and internal processes on the one hand, and between assimilation and accommodation on the other hand. Finally, we will describe the motivational aspects of collaborative knowledge building with wikis. We attribute people’s motivation to participate in collaborative knowledge building to their perception of incongruities and to the perceived valence of the topic.
Von Ulrike Creß, Joachim Kimmerle im Text A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis (2008)
Ulrike CreßWikis provide new opportunities for learning and for collaborative knowledge building as well as for understanding these processes. This article presents a theoretical framework for describing how learning and collaborative knowledge building take place. In order to understand these processes, three aspects need to be considered: the social processes facilitated by a wiki, the cognitive processes of the users, and how both processes influence each other mutually. For this purpose, the model presented in this article borrows from the systemic approach of Luhmann as well as from Piaget’s theory of equilibration and combines these approaches. The model analyzes processes which take place in the social system of a wiki as well as in the cognitive systems of the users. The model also describes learning activities as processes of externalization and internalization. Individual learning happens through internal processes of assimilation and accommodation, whereas changes in a wiki are due to activities of external assimilation and accommodation which in turn lead to collaborative knowledge building. This article provides empirical examples for these equilibration activities by analyzing Wikipedia articles. Equilibration activities are described as being caused by subjectively perceived incongruities between an individuals’ knowledge and the information provided by a wiki. Incongruities of medium level cause cognitive conflicts which in turn activate the described processes of equilibration and facilitate individual learning and collaborative knowledge building.
Von Ulrike Creß, Joachim Kimmerle im Text A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis (2008)

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Personen
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Carl Bereiter, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Axel Bruns, Todd Bryant, Ward Cunningham, Kushal Dave, Mark Guzdial, Hee-Seop Han, Sun-Gwan Han, Sal Humphreys, Colleen Kehoe, Soo-Hwan Kim, Bo Leuf, Niklas Luhmann, Kevin Makice, Humberto R. Maturana, Michele Notari, Seymour Papert, Christian Pentzold, Silvan Reinhold, Will Richardson, Jochen Rick, Marlene Scardamalia, Sebastian Seidenglanz, Gerry Stahl, David Turner, Francisco J. Varela, Fernanda B. Viégas, Chien-min Wang, Martin Wattenberg

Fragen
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Warum beteiligen sich Menschen an einem Wiki?

Begriffe
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AkkommodationAccommodation, Assimilationassimilation, Autopoieseautopoiesis, CSCLComputer-Supported Collaborative Learning, CSCWComputer-supported collaborative work, Lernenlearning, social softwaresocial software, Strukturelle Koppelung, Systemsystem, Weblogsblogging, Wikiwiki, Wiki in educationWiki in education, Wikipedia
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1969 local  General System Theory (Ludwig von Bertalanffy) 9, 8, 8, 15, 14, 15, 16, 7, 1, 1, 4, 22132622
1980 local  Autopoiesis and Cognition (Humberto R. Maturana, Francisco J. Varela) 11, 11, 10, 8, 16, 11, 3, 1, 3, 1, 4, 2571123478
1982 local web  Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 15, 15, 17, 14, 28, 33, 5, 3, 6, 8, 5, 5, 62894565681
1984 local  Soziale Systeme (Niklas Luhmann) 7, 7, 10, 8, 19, 15, 1, 2, 5, 4, 2, 6, 2844022950
1996 CSCL (Timothy D. Koschmann) 13, 12, 12, 10, 9, 15, 15, 2, 4, 4, 5, 31005531417
1997 local  Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft (Niklas Luhmann) 7, 7, 10, 10, 14, 13, 2, 1, 2, 1, 5, 144311559
2001  local  The Wiki Way (Bo Leuf, Ward Cunningham) 12, 12, 19, 14, 16, 26, 8, 5, 8, 5, 1, 7, 41065444396
2002 local  Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (Gerry Stahl) 10, 11, 11, 9, 10, 17, 15, 1, 2, 3, 3, 1455511715
2005   WikiSym 200514, 14, 14, 10, 12, 16, 14, 4, 4, 1, 3, 2696222033
2006  local  Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms (Will Richardson) 11, 10, 10, 11, 10, 20, 13, 4, 4, 4, 4, 2237323497
2006 Educause Quarterly 2/06 Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt 12, 10, 10, 12, 11, 12, 16, 1, 3, 3, 3, 24452889
2006 International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Volume 115, 11, 11, 9, 10, 17, 20, 4, 4, 6, 3, 213942789
2006 WikiSym 200614, 14, 10, 11, 16, 18, 2, 5, 11, 4, 6, 2, 84812382119
2006 Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing16, 16, 20, 12, 24, 18, 10, 11, 7, 10, 8, 4, 15568152309
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1994 local web  Computer Support for Knowledge-Building Communities (Marlene Scardamalia, Carl Bereiter) 8, 8, 10, 11, 13, 13, 3, 2, 3, 4, 2, 152711722
2001 local  Beyond Adoption to Invention (Mark Guzdial, Jochen Rick, Colleen Kehoe) 11, 11, 10, 10, 16, 20, 4, 1, 3, 4, 4, 4262142392
2002 Contributions to a Theoretical Framework for CSCL (Gerry Stahl) 12, 10, 10, 8, 10, 13, 9, 3, 1, 3, 2, 12171703
2004 local web  Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with history flow Visualizations (Fernanda B. Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, Kushal Dave) 9, 9, 10, 7, 17, 11, 2, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1191311250
2004 local web  Extending the Wiki Paradigm for Use in the Classroom (Chien-min Wang, David Turner) 8, 8, 11, 11, 15, 16, 2, 4, 6, 12, 3, 5, 1121011109
2005 local web  Wikis in Teaching and Assessment (Axel Bruns, Sal Humphreys) 11, 11, 13, 10, 18, 10, 1, 4, 4, 2, 3, 131911067
2006 local web  Situating CoWeb (Mark Guzdial, Jochen Rick) 12, 12, 11, 9, 16, 19, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 193711282
2006 local web  Social Software in Academia (Todd Bryant) 9, 9, 7, 9, 12, 13, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 4, 23242897
2006 local web  PoliticWiki (Kevin Makice) 8, 8, 10, 9, 12, 11, 1, 4, 3, 2, 4, 22102630
2006 local web  Foucault@Wiki (Christian Pentzold, Sebastian Seidenglanz) 8, 9, 9, 5, 6, 12, 12, 5, 1, 3, 1, 3263715
2006 local web  WikiTrails (Silvan Reinhold) 11, 11, 6, 7, 15, 13, 3, 2, 4, 2, 3, 19131891
2006 How to use a wiki in education (Michele Notari) 12200
2006 The Study on Effective Programming Learning Using Wiki Community Systems (Soo-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seop Han, Sun-Gwan Han) 1200

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Perturbation, Weblogs in education

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