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Tracing the Dynabook

A Study of Technocultural Transformations
John W. Maxwell , local web 
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Tracing the DynabookThe origins of the personal computer are found in an educational vision. Desktop computing and multimedia were not first conceived as tools for office workers or media professionals— they were prototyped as “personal dynamic media” for children. Alan Kay, then at Xerox’ Palo Alto Research Center, saw in the emerging digital world the possibility of a communications revolution and argued that this revolution should be in the hands of children. Focusing on the development of the “Dynabook,” Kay’s research group established a wide-ranging conception of personal and educational computing, based on the ideal of a new systems literacy, of which computing is an integral part.
Kay’s research led to two dominant computing paradigms: the graphical user interface for personal computers, and object-oriented programming. By contrast, Kay’s educational vision has been largely forgotten, overwhelmed by the sheer volume of discourse on e-learning and the Web. However, an historical analysis of Kay’s educational project and its many contributions reveals a conception of educational computing that is in many ways more compelling than anything we have today, as it is based on a solid foundation of educational theory, one that substantially anticipates and addresses some of the biggest civil/political issues of our time, those of the openness and ownership of cultural expression. The Dynabook is a candidate for what 21st-century literacy might look like in a liberal, individualist, decentralized, and democratic key.
This dissertation is a historical treatment of the Dynabook vision and its implementations in changing contexts over 35 years. It is an attempt to trace the development of a technocultural artifact: the Dynabook, itself partly an idealized vision and partly a series of actual technologies. It is thus a work of cultural history. But it is more than simply a looking back; the effectivehistory of the Dynabook, its various incarnations, and its continuing re-emergence and re-articulation mean that the relevance of this story is an ongoing question which needs to be recognized and addressed by educators, technologists, and learners today. This dissertation represents an introduction to this case.
Von John W. Maxwell in der Dissertation Tracing the Dynabook (2006)

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Personen
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Christopher Alexander, B.J. Allen-Conn, Kent Beck, Amy Bruckman, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Burd, Michel Callon, Larry Cuban, John Dewey, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Fernando Flores, Adele Goldberg, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Sara Ishikawa, Yasmin B. Kafai, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Thomas S. Kuhn, Bruno Latour, Brenda Laurel, Jean Lave, John Law, Lawrence Lessig, John Maloney, Marshall McLuhan, Nick Montfort, Walter Ong, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Neil Postman, Mitchel Resnick, Kimberly M. Rose, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Murray Silverstein, Cynthia Solomon, Neal Stephenson, Sherry Turkle, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Joseph Weizenbaum, Etienne Wenger, Terry Winograd, Stephen Wolfram, Steve Woolgar

Begriffe
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Computercomputer, DynabookDynabook, E-LearningE-Learning, microworldmicroworld, Multimediamultimedia, Smalltalk, Squeak
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
Oralität und Literalität (Walter Ong) 31200
1916 local  Demokratie und Erziehung (John Dewey) 10, 10, 10, 13, 20, 20, 2, 6, 4, 2, 3, 243621802
1930 local  Mind in Society (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 11, 11, 13, 11, 15, 22, 4, 4, 1, 3, 1, 6, 41735542071
1962 Die Gutenberg-Galaxis (Marshall McLuhan) 12, 10, 10, 10, 10, 13, 13, 5, 1, 3, 3, 948193739
1962   Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen (Thomas S. Kuhn) 10, 10, 14, 11, 17, 13, 4, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 21221729881
1966 local  Towards a theory of instruction (Jerome S. Bruner) 13, 13, 10, 10, 17, 28, 7, 2, 2, 4, 2, 5, 3324331917
1966 local  Understanding Media (Marshall McLuhan) 9, 9, 12, 10, 18, 15, 3, 1, 4, 6, 3, 3, 21353122875
1976   Die Macht der Computer und die Ohnmacht der Vernunft (Joseph Weizenbaum) 15, 15, 10, 18, 19, 22, 3, 3, 6, 5, 5, 5, 3122169318749
1977 A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein) 10, 10, 7, 12, 12, 14, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 4, 331431447
1979 local  Laboratory Life (Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar) 9, 6, 6, 9, 9, 13, 12, 2, 1, 1, 3, 11311396
1980   The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 12, 12, 11, 13, 18, 16, 2, 2, 4, 1, 4, 123251471
1981 Advances in social theory and methodology (Karin Knorr-Cetina, A. V. Cicourel) 11, 9, 8, 8, 10, 7, 15, 8, 1, 1, 4, 11031386
1982 local web  Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 15, 15, 17, 14, 28, 33, 5, 3, 6, 8, 5, 5, 62894565681
1984  local  The Second Self (Sherry Turkle) 9, 9, 9, 9, 17, 16, 1, 1, 4, 5, 5, 4, 21037526032
1985 local  Wir amüsieren uns zu Tode (Neil Postman) 10, 10, 13, 11, 15, 16, 4, 1, 7, 3, 2, 4, 2685525376
1986  local  Computer Environments for Children (Cynthia Solomon) 9, 9, 6, 9, 18, 19, 2, 1, 2, 3, 2, 5, 47404505
1986 Teachers and Machines (Larry Cuban) 6, 6, 8, 11, 17, 13, 2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 242321026
1987 Science In Action (Bruno Latour) 29000
1987  local  Understanding Computers and Cognition (Terry Winograd, Fernando Flores) 17, 17, 9, 17, 21, 15, 2, 2, 3, 4, 6, 4, 37118538155
1988  local  Studying the Novice Programmer (Elliot Soloway, Jim Spohrer) 10, 10, 10, 7, 19, 11, 1, 4, 5, 5, 3, 259482405
1990 Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 13, 13, 9, 11, 24, 15, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 21186421437
1990 The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design (Brenda Laurel) 15, 11, 11, 10, 11, 15, 11, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1153011376
1991 A Sociology of Monsters (John Law) 15, 7, 6, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 4, 1, 7, 129121516
1991 Acts of Meaning (Jerome S. Bruner) 23000
1991 Computers as Theatre (Brenda Laurel) 8, 11, 9, 9, 9, 7, 7, 11, 11, 2, 3, 11951704
1991 Situated Learning (Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger) 7, 7, 8, 9, 15, 23, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2162221458
1993 We Have Never Been Modern (Bruno Latour) 9000
1994 local web  MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1996 The Culture of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 17000
1999  local  extreme Programming explained (Kent Beck) 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 13, 16, 1, 1, 3, 8, 1191511175
1999  local  In the Beginning... Was the Command Line (Neal Stephenson) 11, 9, 8, 8, 8, 11, 9, 11, 3, 2, 2, 232221522
2000 Squeak (Mark Guzdial) 19, 11, 10, 10, 8, 5, 15, 12, 2, 4, 2, 1114211273
2001 Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 20, 20, 13, 12, 20, 23, 7, 4, 8, 4, 5, 61365762924
2001 Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 13, 8, 9, 9, 7, 8, 14, 12, 2, 2, 5, 129511402
2001 local  Oversold and Underused (Larry Cuban) 8, 12, 12, 8, 15, 16, 20, 1, 3, 2, 8, 269721665
2001 local web  The Future of Ideas (Lawrence Lessig) 13, 11, 8, 8, 7, 12, 8, 17, 3, 1, 2, 11891810
2002  local  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 17, 12, 13, 13, 8, 12, 11, 15, 5, 4, 5, 22722124928
2003  local  The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 17, 17, 14, 17, 14, 18, 6, 7, 3, 4, 3, 5, 522010354981
2004 Powerful Ideas in the Classroom Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt (B.J. Allen-Conn, Kimberly M. Rose) 16, 11, 11, 11, 6, 7, 13, 12, 1, 1, 4, 13511220
2004 local web  Free Culture (Lawrence Lessig) 12, 9, 9, 9, 11, 15, 17, 1, 2, 2, 4, 2282621970
2006  local  ANThology (Andrea Belliger, David Krieger) 9, 9, 17, 9, 17, 13, 3, 2, 3, 6, 2, 44210041248
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1970 local web  Teaching children thinking (Seymour Papert) 13, 13, 9, 10, 14, 16, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 2151421131
1972 local web  A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages (Alan Kay) 16, 16, 14, 13, 18, 22, 3, 7, 6, 6, 1, 3, 2642022005
1977 Microelectronics and the Personal Computer (Alan Kay) 7000
1977 local  Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 12, 12, 11, 13, 22, 19, 1, 5, 3, 1, 5, 2341521951
1981 local web  Unscrewing the big Leviathan (Michel Callon, Bruno Latour) 6, 6, 9, 9, 13, 10, 2, 2, 3, 2, 8, 2832442
1989 local  On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 13, 11, 6, 6, 8, 10, 16, 13, 2, 2, 4, 2191022124
1990 local web  Situating Constructionism (Seymour Papert, Idit Harel) 15, 9, 9, 9, 8, 10, 15, 15, 1, 2, 2, 151111843
1990 local web  Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete (Sherry Turkle, Seymour Papert) 12, 12, 10, 10, 21, 16, 1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 4, 128291525
1990 local web  User Interface (Alan Kay) 20, 17, 12, 12, 8, 13, 18, 15, 1, 2, 4, 25292584
1991 local  Techno-economic networks and irreversibility (Michel Callon) 8, 7, 7, 8, 5, 10, 9, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1441374
1991 local  Computers, Networks and Education (Alan Kay) 15, 15, 14, 13, 15, 18, 4, 1, 2, 3, 1, 5, 2122521430
1992 local web  Notes on the Theory of the Actor Network (John Law) 10, 10, 12, 12, 10, 9, 14, 11, 5, 1, 6, 12191399
1993 Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins (Larry Cuban) 6000
1998 local  The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet! (Alan Kay) 13, 12, 12, 12, 11, 15, 10, 3, 3, 3, 4, 123411203
2004 local web  Scratch (John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick) 17, 17, 12, 17, 13, 13, 9, 2, 4, 4, 3, 4, 2132021164
2005 local web  Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 9, 9, 11, 12, 12, 16, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 145171596

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