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Tracing the Dynabook

A Study of Technocultural Transformations
John W. Maxwell , local web 
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Tracing the DynabookThe origins of the personal computer are found in an educational vision. Desktop computing and multimedia were not first conceived as tools for office workers or media professionals— they were prototyped as “personal dynamic media” for children. Alan Kay, then at Xerox’ Palo Alto Research Center, saw in the emerging digital world the possibility of a communications revolution and argued that this revolution should be in the hands of children. Focusing on the development of the “Dynabook,” Kay’s research group established a wide-ranging conception of personal and educational computing, based on the ideal of a new systems literacy, of which computing is an integral part.
Kay’s research led to two dominant computing paradigms: the graphical user interface for personal computers, and object-oriented programming. By contrast, Kay’s educational vision has been largely forgotten, overwhelmed by the sheer volume of discourse on e-learning and the Web. However, an historical analysis of Kay’s educational project and its many contributions reveals a conception of educational computing that is in many ways more compelling than anything we have today, as it is based on a solid foundation of educational theory, one that substantially anticipates and addresses some of the biggest civil/political issues of our time, those of the openness and ownership of cultural expression. The Dynabook is a candidate for what 21st-century literacy might look like in a liberal, individualist, decentralized, and democratic key.
This dissertation is a historical treatment of the Dynabook vision and its implementations in changing contexts over 35 years. It is an attempt to trace the development of a technocultural artifact: the Dynabook, itself partly an idealized vision and partly a series of actual technologies. It is thus a work of cultural history. But it is more than simply a looking back; the effectivehistory of the Dynabook, its various incarnations, and its continuing re-emergence and re-articulation mean that the relevance of this story is an ongoing question which needs to be recognized and addressed by educators, technologists, and learners today. This dissertation represents an introduction to this case.
Von John W. Maxwell in der Dissertation Tracing the Dynabook (2006)

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Personen
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Christopher Alexander, B.J. Allen-Conn, Kent Beck, Amy Bruckman, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Burd, Michel Callon, Larry Cuban, John Dewey, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Fernando Flores, Adele Goldberg, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Sara Ishikawa, Yasmin B. Kafai, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Thomas S. Kuhn, Bruno Latour, Brenda Laurel, Jean Lave, John Law, Lawrence Lessig, John Maloney, Marshall McLuhan, Nick Montfort, Walter Ong, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Neil Postman, Mitchel Resnick, Kimberly M. Rose, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Murray Silverstein, Cynthia Solomon, Neal Stephenson, Sherry Turkle, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Joseph Weizenbaum, Etienne Wenger, Terry Winograd, Stephen Wolfram, Steve Woolgar

Begriffe
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Computercomputer, DynabookDynabook, E-LearningE-Learning, microworldmicroworld, Multimediamultimedia, Smalltalk, Squeak
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
Oralität und Literalität (Walter Ong) 31200
1916 local Demokratie und Erziehung (John Dewey) 18, 11, 20, 13, 10, 10, 10, 13, 20, 20, 2, 641661791
1930 local Mind in Society (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 13, 19, 15, 11, 11, 13, 11, 15, 22, 4, 4, 11571912057
1962Die Gutenberg-Galaxis (Marshall McLuhan) 10, 12, 18, 12, 10, 10, 10, 10, 13, 13, 5, 148113724
1962  Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen (Thomas S. Kuhn) 10, 17, 16, 10, 10, 14, 11, 17, 13, 4, 1, 11221719873
1966 local Towards a theory of instruction (Jerome S. Bruner) 11, 16, 16, 13, 13, 10, 10, 17, 28, 7, 2, 2314321903
1966 local Understanding Media (Marshall McLuhan) 14, 16, 17, 9, 9, 12, 10, 18, 15, 3, 1, 41343042861
1976  Die Macht der Computer und die Ohnmacht der Vernunft (Joseph Weizenbaum) 13, 16, 16, 15, 15, 10, 18, 19, 22, 3, 3, 6121169618731
1977A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein) 9, 15, 10, 10, 10, 7, 12, 12, 14, 2, 3, 331431434
1979 local Laboratory Life (Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar) 6, 6, 14, 9, 6, 6, 9, 9, 13, 12, 2, 11211391
1980  The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 8, 10, 16, 10, 12, 12, 11, 13, 18, 16, 2, 223262461
1981Advances in social theory and methodology (Karin Knorr-Cetina, A. V. Cicourel) 4, 5, 8, 11, 9, 8, 8, 10, 7, 15, 8, 11041380
1982 local web Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 15, 19, 16, 15, 15, 17, 14, 28, 33, 5, 3, 62674565657
1984  local The Second Self (Sherry Turkle) 28, 25, 14, 9, 9, 9, 9, 17, 16, 1, 1, 41027546016
1985 local Wir amüsieren uns zu Tode (Neil Postman) 14, 14, 15, 10, 10, 13, 11, 15, 16, 4, 1, 7685575365
1986  local Computer Environments for Children (Cynthia Solomon) 9, 14, 13, 9, 9, 6, 9, 18, 19, 2, 1, 26402491
1986Teachers and Machines (Larry Cuban) 8, 15, 13, 6, 6, 8, 11, 17, 13, 2, 1, 241321016
1987Science In Action (Bruno Latour) 26000
1987  local Understanding Computers and Cognition (Terry Winograd, Fernando Flores) 14, 20, 14, 17, 17, 9, 17, 21, 15, 2, 2, 37118538138
1988  local Studying the Novice Programmer (Elliot Soloway, Jim Spohrer) 8, 11, 18, 13, 10, 10, 10, 7, 19, 11, 1, 458464390
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 6, 8, 20, 10, 13, 13, 9, 11, 24, 15, 1, 11134811429
1990The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design (Brenda Laurel) 2, 7, 13, 20, 15, 11, 11, 10, 11, 15, 11, 1153011370
1991A Sociology of Monsters (John Law) 2, 7, 9, 15, 7, 6, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 429144507
1991Acts of Meaning (Jerome S. Bruner) 21000
1991Computers as Theatre (Brenda Laurel) 5, 1, 7, 8, 11, 9, 9, 9, 7, 7, 11, 1118511698
1991Situated Learning (Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger) 14, 13, 15, 7, 7, 8, 9, 15, 23, 2, 2, 2151221452
1993We Have Never Been Modern (Bruno Latour) 9000
1994 local web MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1996The Culture of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 15000
1999  local extreme Programming explained (Kent Beck) 5, 6, 10, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 13, 16, 1, 1191511163
1999  local In the Beginning... Was the Command Line (Neal Stephenson) 4, 12, 9, 11, 9, 8, 8, 8, 11, 9, 11, 332231516
2000Squeak (Mark Guzdial) 7, 10, 9, 19, 11, 10, 10, 8, 5, 15, 12, 2114221266
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 28, 26, 27, 20, 20, 13, 12, 20, 23, 7, 4, 81356082909
2001Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 2, 7, 11, 13, 8, 9, 9, 7, 8, 14, 12, 227521394
2001 local Oversold and Underused (Larry Cuban) 7, 8, 17, 8, 12, 12, 8, 15, 16, 20, 1, 368731653
2001 local web The Future of Ideas (Lawrence Lessig) 5, 7, 12, 13, 11, 8, 8, 7, 12, 8, 17, 31893806
2002  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 6, 6, 9, 17, 12, 13, 13, 8, 12, 11, 15, 52722054917
2003  local The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 20, 24, 22, 17, 17, 14, 17, 14, 18, 6, 7, 321610034964
2004Powerful Ideas in the Classroom Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt (B.J. Allen-Conn, Kimberly M. Rose) 8, 6, 8, 16, 11, 11, 11, 6, 7, 13, 12, 13511214
2004 local web Free Culture (Lawrence Lessig) 5, 14, 16, 12, 9, 9, 9, 11, 15, 17, 1, 2252621962
2006  local ANThology (Andrea Belliger, David Krieger) 16, 18, 11, 9, 9, 17, 9, 17, 13, 3, 2, 34110331236
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1970 local web Teaching children thinking (Seymour Papert) 10, 13, 16, 13, 13, 9, 10, 14, 16, 2, 1, 1131411120
1972 local web A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages (Alan Kay) 18, 17, 21, 16, 16, 14, 13, 18, 22, 3, 7, 6592061993
1977Microelectronics and the Personal Computer (Alan Kay) 7000
1977 local Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 23, 20, 21, 17, 12, 12, 11, 13, 22, 19, 1, 5311551940
1981 local web Unscrewing the big Leviathan (Michel Callon, Bruno Latour) 6, 10, 14, 7, 6, 6, 9, 9, 13, 10, 2, 2732427
1989 local On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 3, 6, 8, 13, 11, 6, 6, 8, 10, 16, 13, 2191022116
1990 local web Situating Constructionism (Seymour Papert, Idit Harel) 5, 8, 8, 15, 9, 9, 9, 8, 10, 15, 15, 140111838
1990 local web Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete (Sherry Turkle, Seymour Papert) 10, 19, 13, 12, 12, 10, 10, 21, 16, 1, 2, 130241515
1990 local web User Interface (Alan Kay) 4, 13, 17, 20, 17, 12, 12, 8, 13, 18, 15, 13291576
1991 local Techno-economic networks and irreversibility (Michel Callon) 6, 10, 10, 8, 7, 7, 8, 5, 10, 9, 3, 1341368
1991 local Computers, Networks and Education (Alan Kay) 9, 17, 16, 15, 15, 14, 13, 15, 18, 4, 1, 2112521419
1992 local web Notes on the Theory of the Actor Network (John Law) 5, 7, 10, 10, 10, 12, 12, 10, 9, 14, 11, 52185391
1993Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins (Larry Cuban) 6000
1998 local The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet! (Alan Kay) 6, 12, 14, 13, 12, 12, 12, 11, 15, 10, 3, 323431195
2004 local web Scratch (John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick) 17, 26, 11, 17, 17, 12, 17, 13, 13, 9, 2, 4132041151
2005 local web Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 6, 10, 18, 11, 9, 9, 11, 12, 12, 16, 1, 133171589

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