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Tracing the Dynabook

A Study of Technocultural Transformations
John W. Maxwell ,    
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The origins of the personal computer are found in an educational vision. Desktop computing and multimedia were not first conceived as tools for office workers or media professionals— they were prototyped as “personal dynamic media” for children. Alan Kay, then at Xerox’ Palo Alto Research Center, saw in the emerging digital world the possibility of a communications revolution and argued that this revolution should be in the hands of children. Focusing on the development of the “Dynabook,” Kay’s research group established a wide-ranging conception of personal and educational computing, based on the ideal of a new systems literacy, of which computing is an integral part.
Kay’s research led to two dominant computing paradigms: the graphical user interface for personal computers, and object-oriented programming. By contrast, Kay’s educational vision has been largely forgotten, overwhelmed by the sheer volume of discourse on e-learning and the Web. However, an historical analysis of Kay’s educational project and its many contributions reveals a conception of educational computing that is in many ways more compelling than anything we have today, as it is based on a solid foundation of educational theory, one that substantially anticipates and addresses some of the biggest civil/political issues of our time, those of the openness and ownership of cultural expression. The Dynabook is a candidate for what 21st-century literacy might look like in a liberal, individualist, decentralized, and democratic key.
This dissertation is a historical treatment of the Dynabook vision and its implementations in changing contexts over 35 years. It is an attempt to trace the development of a technocultural artifact: the Dynabook, itself partly an idealized vision and partly a series of actual technologies. It is thus a work of cultural history. But it is more than simply a looking back; the effectivehistory of the Dynabook, its various incarnations, and its continuing re-emergence and re-articulation mean that the relevance of this story is an ongoing question which needs to be recognized and addressed by educators, technologists, and learners today. This dissertation represents an introduction to this case.
Von John W. Maxwell in der Dissertation Tracing the Dynabook (2006)

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Personen
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Christopher Alexander, B.J. Allen-Conn, Kent Beck, Amy Bruckman, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Burd, Michel Callon, Larry Cuban, John Dewey, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Fernando Flores, Adele Goldberg, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Sara Ishikawa, Yasmin B. Kafai, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Thomas S. Kuhn, Bruno Latour, Brenda Laurel, Jean Lave, John Law, Lawrence Lessig, John Maloney, Marshall McLuhan, Nick Montfort, Walter Ong, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Neil Postman, Mitchel Resnick, Kimberly M. Rose, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Murray Silverstein, Cynthia Solomon, Neal Stephenson, Sherry Turkle, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Joseph Weizenbaum, Etienne Wenger, Terry Winograd, Stephen Wolfram, Steve Woolgar

Begriffe
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Computercomputer, DynabookDynabook, E-LearningE-Learning, microworldmicroworld, Multimediamultimedia, Smalltalk, Squeak
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
Oralität und Literalität (Walter Ong) 22200
1916   Demokratie und Erziehung (John Dewey) 3, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 12, 6, 4, 3, 5, 336631328
1930Mind in Society (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 4, 5, 3, 17, 4, 8, 12, 7, 30, 14, 31, 2013718201469
1962Die Gutenberg-Galaxis (Marshall McLuhan) 1, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 10, 3, 8, 9, 4, 737173367
1962  Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen (Thomas S. Kuhn) 7, 7, 3, 7, 3, 5, 18, 8, 34, 13, 27, 1610817169277
1966   Towards a theory of instruction (Jerome S. Bruner) 4, 8, 3, 2, 2, 5, 16, 8, 14, 8, 5, 4324341447
1966   Understanding Media (Marshall McLuhan) 2, 3, 7, 4, 4, 4, 14, 4, 22, 9, 4, 31023032357
1976  Die Macht der Computer und die Ohnmacht der Vernunft (Joseph Weizenbaum) 13, 19, 7, 17, 7, 16, 26, 18, 40, 22, 36, 191031581917929
1977A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein) 8, 3, 3, 4, 1, 5, 6, 6, 4, 5, 3, 431441131
1979   Laboratory Life (Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar) 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 4, 3, 4, 2, 2712164
1980  The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 2, 1, 3, 2, 3, 3, 10, 3, 4, 4, 2, 220252178
1981Advances in social theory and methodology (Karin Knorr-Cetina, A. V. Cicourel) 3, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 4, 4, 5, 1, 4734194
1982    Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 14, 16, 6, 24, 6, 17, 34, 8, 62, 20, 32, 1720545174721
1984    The Second Self (Sherry Turkle) 8, 8, 4, 13, 5, 3, 16, 11, 14, 5, 4, 8907185308
1985   Wir amüsieren uns zu Tode (Neil Postman) 7, 10, 10, 4, 7, 9, 12, 6, 12, 9, 10, 146055144792
1986    Computer Environments for Children (Cynthia Solomon) 2, 3, 1, 3, 3, 2, 12, 6, 4, 4, 2, 36403169
1986Teachers and Machines (Larry Cuban) 2, 1, 3, 2, 1, 3, 12, 7, 6, 4, 5, 22832761
1987Science In Action (Bruno Latour) 17000
1987    Understanding Computers and Cognition (Terry Winograd, Fernando Flores) 6, 11, 7, 10, 4, 8, 10, 10, 18, 6, 8, 87316187210
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 4, 8, 4, 20, 10, 5, 991389966
1990The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design (Brenda Laurel) 2, 6, 2, 1, 1, 2, 8, 3, 2, 3, 3, 7122971065
1991A Sociology of Monsters (John Law) 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 4, 6, 3, 2, 416124297
1991Acts of Meaning (Jerome S. Bruner) 20000
1991Computers as Theatre (Brenda Laurel) 2, 4, 2, 1, 1, 3, 4, 2, 2, 5, 4, 41654475
1991Situated Learning (Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger) 6, 4, 1, 6, 2, 4, 6, 6, 28, 12, 22, 191332191000
1993We Have Never Been Modern (Bruno Latour) 5000
1994    MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1996The Culture of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 15000
1999    extreme Programming explained (Kent Beck) 1, 2, 4, 1, 3, 2, 6, 7, 10, 5, 5, 517155924
1999    In the Beginning... Was the Command Line (Neal Stephenson) 5, 4, 2, 3, 6, 5, 8, 11, 6, 6, 5, 342231172
2000Squeak (Mark Guzdial) 1, 5, 7, 2, 4, 3, 4, 4, 4, 8, 3, 4164241006
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 8, 8, 6, 9, 7, 10, 14, 12, 60, 21, 24, 2211756222082
2001Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 4, 3, 14, 3, 8, 821581113
2001   Oversold and Underused (Larry Cuban) 5, 2, 6, 6, 3, 4, 10, 7, 14, 5, 6, 657761259
2001    The Future of Ideas (Lawrence Lessig) 2, 2, 3, 1, 1, 3, 6, 6, 2, 4, 7, 41694527
2002  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 8, 15, 16, 10, 18, 17, 32, 11, 30, 17, 21, 1525216154468
2003  The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 8, 10, 6, 13, 12, 23, 22, 13, 86, 20, 18, 2318191234175
2004Powerful Ideas in the Classroom Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt (B.J. Allen-Conn, Kimberly M. Rose) 3, 6, 5, 8, 1, 2, 2, 6, 6, 2, 4, 4454881
2004    Free Culture (Lawrence Lessig) 5, 3, 3, 2, 2, 4, 6, 5, 10, 7, 8, 2212521629
2006  ANThology (Andrea Belliger, David Krieger) 4, 8, 5, 3, 4, 5, 20, 7, 4, 7, 7, 10349610799
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1970    Teaching children thinking (Seymour Papert) 2, 3, 2, 3, 1, 2, 6, 3, 4, 4, 3, 214142830
1972    A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages (Alan Kay) 4, 3, 5, 3, 2, 6, 8, 3, 12, 6, 25, 125618121359
1977Microelectronics and the Personal Computer (Alan Kay) 6000
1977   Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 3, 1, 3, 3, 4, 4, 8, 1, 4, 6, 6, 6271561549
1981    Unscrewing the big Leviathan (Michel Callon, Bruno Latour) 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 2, 7737185
1989   On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 1, 1, 2, 4, 2, 2, 3, 4, 1, 3, 3, 415941855
1990    Situating Constructionism (Seymour Papert, Idit Harel) 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 3, 2, 12, 8, 4, 3, 335113558
1990    Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete (Sherry Turkle, Seymour Papert) 5, 3, 3, 1, 1, 2, 12, 3, 10, 6, 2, 225222141
1990    User Interface (Alan Kay) 3, 1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 3, 8, 6, 5, 6, 73287232
1991   Techno-economic networks and irreversibility (Michel Callon) 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 6, 1, 3443200
1991   Computers, Networks and Education (Alan Kay) 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 5, 8, 5, 10, 6, 6, 3122531081
1992    Notes on the Theory of the Actor Network (John Law) 1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 2, 5, 42184186
1993Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins (Larry Cuban) 5000
1998   The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet! (Alan Kay) 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 4, 6, 1, 6, 3, 3, 42344870
2004    Scratch (John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick) 6, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6, 12, 4, 18, 6, 6, 13142013645
2005    Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 3, 2, 4, 1, 1, 2, 10, 2, 8, 5, 4, 423174317

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