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Tracing the Dynabook

A Study of Technocultural Transformations
John W. Maxwell ,    
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The origins of the personal computer are found in an educational vision. Desktop computing and multimedia were not first conceived as tools for office workers or media professionals— they were prototyped as “personal dynamic media” for children. Alan Kay, then at Xerox’ Palo Alto Research Center, saw in the emerging digital world the possibility of a communications revolution and argued that this revolution should be in the hands of children. Focusing on the development of the “Dynabook,” Kay’s research group established a wide-ranging conception of personal and educational computing, based on the ideal of a new systems literacy, of which computing is an integral part.
Kay’s research led to two dominant computing paradigms: the graphical user interface for personal computers, and object-oriented programming. By contrast, Kay’s educational vision has been largely forgotten, overwhelmed by the sheer volume of discourse on e-learning and the Web. However, an historical analysis of Kay’s educational project and its many contributions reveals a conception of educational computing that is in many ways more compelling than anything we have today, as it is based on a solid foundation of educational theory, one that substantially anticipates and addresses some of the biggest civil/political issues of our time, those of the openness and ownership of cultural expression. The Dynabook is a candidate for what 21st-century literacy might look like in a liberal, individualist, decentralized, and democratic key.
This dissertation is a historical treatment of the Dynabook vision and its implementations in changing contexts over 35 years. It is an attempt to trace the development of a technocultural artifact: the Dynabook, itself partly an idealized vision and partly a series of actual technologies. It is thus a work of cultural history. But it is more than simply a looking back; the effectivehistory of the Dynabook, its various incarnations, and its continuing re-emergence and re-articulation mean that the relevance of this story is an ongoing question which needs to be recognized and addressed by educators, technologists, and learners today. This dissertation represents an introduction to this case.
Von John W. Maxwell in der Dissertation Tracing the Dynabook (2006)

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Personen
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Christopher Alexander, B.J. Allen-Conn, Kent Beck, Amy Bruckman, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Burd, Michel Callon, Larry Cuban, John Dewey, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Fernando Flores, Adele Goldberg, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Sara Ishikawa, Yasmin B. Kafai, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Thomas S. Kuhn, Bruno Latour, Brenda Laurel, Jean Lave, John Law, Lawrence Lessig, John Maloney, Marshall McLuhan, Nick Montfort, Walter Ong, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Neil Postman, Mitchel Resnick, Kimberly M. Rose, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Murray Silverstein, Cynthia Solomon, Neal Stephenson, Sherry Turkle, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Joseph Weizenbaum, Etienne Wenger, Terry Winograd, Stephen Wolfram, Steve Woolgar

Begriffe
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Computercomputer, DynabookDynabook, E-LearningE-Learning, microworldmicroworld, Multimediamultimedia, Smalltalk, Squeak
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
Oralität und Literalität (Walter Ong) 22200
1916   Demokratie und Erziehung (John Dewey) 3, 2, 3, 2, 1, 3, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 12346121307
1930Mind in Society (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 5, 4, 7, 11, 5, 4, 5, 3, 17, 4, 8, 1213718121367
1962Die Gutenberg-Galaxis (Marshall McLuhan) 3, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 10351103336
1962  Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen (Thomas S. Kuhn) 5, 8, 3, 6, 3, 7, 7, 3, 7, 3, 5, 1810717189179
1966   Towards a theory of instruction (Jerome S. Bruner) 6, 2, 3, 2, 4, 4, 8, 3, 2, 2, 5, 163243161408
1966   Understanding Media (Marshall McLuhan) 3, 3, 1, 4, 3, 2, 3, 7, 4, 4, 4, 1410130142315
1976  Die Macht der Computer und die Ohnmacht der Vernunft (Joseph Weizenbaum) 8, 9, 14, 14, 7, 13, 19, 7, 17, 7, 16, 261021582617794
1977A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein) 3, 1, 5, 1, 1, 8, 3, 3, 4, 1, 5, 631461109
1979   Laboratory Life (Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar) 5, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 4714153
1980  The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 2, 4, 1, 1, 4, 2, 1, 3, 2, 3, 3, 10202510163
1981Advances in social theory and methodology (Karin Knorr-Cetina, A. V. Cicourel) 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 4, 4734184
1982    Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 10, 4, 6, 12, 11, 14, 16, 6, 24, 6, 17, 3420045344582
1984    The Second Self (Sherry Turkle) 1, 6, 4, 4, 3, 8, 8, 4, 13, 5, 3, 168971165266
1985   Wir amüsieren uns zu Tode (Neil Postman) 7, 8, 5, 6, 9, 7, 10, 10, 4, 7, 9, 126055124741
1986  Computer Environments for Children (Cynthia Solomon) 3, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1262712150
1986Teachers and Machines (Larry Cuban) 2, 4, 5, 2, 4, 2, 1, 3, 2, 1, 3, 1228312737
1987Science In Action (Bruno Latour) 17000
1987    Understanding Computers and Cognition (Terry Winograd, Fernando Flores) 11, 10, 7, 8, 4, 6, 11, 7, 10, 4, 8, 1072161107160
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 3, 2, 6, 6, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 4, 890388918
1990The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design (Brenda Laurel) 5, 1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 6, 2, 1, 1, 2, 8122981047
1991A Sociology of Monsters (John Law) 3, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 416124282
1991Acts of Meaning (Jerome S. Bruner) 20000
1991Computers as Theatre (Brenda Laurel) 1, 1, 3, 2, 1, 2, 4, 2, 1, 1, 3, 41654458
1991Situated Learning (Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger) 2, 5, 3, 3, 2, 6, 4, 1, 6, 2, 4, 613126913
1993We Have Never Been Modern (Bruno Latour) 5000
1994    MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1996The Culture of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 15000
1999    extreme Programming explained (Kent Beck) 3, 6, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 4, 1, 3, 2, 617156892
1999    In the Beginning... Was the Command Line (Neal Stephenson) 1, 3, 2, 4, 2, 5, 4, 2, 3, 6, 5, 842281141
2000Squeak (Mark Guzdial) 5, 2, 4, 1, 5, 1, 5, 7, 2, 4, 3, 415424983
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 9, 6, 6, 8, 6, 8, 8, 6, 9, 7, 10, 1411656141943
2001Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 420541077
2001   Oversold and Underused (Larry Cuban) 1, 5, 2, 5, 3, 5, 2, 6, 6, 3, 4, 10557101221
2001    The Future of Ideas (Lawrence Lessig) 1, 3, 1, 1, 5, 2, 2, 3, 1, 1, 3, 61696504
2002  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 4, 60, 33, 61, 42, 8, 15, 16, 10, 18, 17, 3224216324374
2003  The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 7, 9, 8, 11, 10, 8, 10, 6, 13, 12, 23, 2218191224015
2004Powerful Ideas in the Classroom Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt (B.J. Allen-Conn, Kimberly M. Rose) 4, 1, 2, 3, 3, 6, 5, 8, 1, 2, 2, 6456865
2004    Free Culture (Lawrence Lessig) 4, 2, 2, 3, 3, 5, 3, 3, 2, 2, 4, 6212561597
2006  ANThology (Andrea Belliger, David Krieger) 6, 6, 2, 4, 4, 4, 8, 5, 3, 4, 5, 20349620764
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1970    Teaching children thinking (Seymour Papert) 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 1, 2, 614146814
1972    A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages (Alan Kay) 4, 2, 1, 4, 3, 4, 3, 5, 3, 2, 6, 8561881301
1977Microelectronics and the Personal Computer (Alan Kay) 6000
1977   Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 4, 3, 2, 1, 3, 3, 1, 3, 3, 4, 4, 8261581526
1981    Unscrewing the big Leviathan (Michel Callon, Bruno Latour) 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 4734173
1989   On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 2, 4, 4, 2, 1, 1, 2, 4, 2, 2, 3, 415941844
1990    Situating Constructionism (Seymour Papert, Idit Harel) 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 3, 2, 12351112540
1990    Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete (Sherry Turkle, Seymour Papert) 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5, 3, 3, 1, 1, 2, 12242212118
1990    User Interface (Alan Kay) 3, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 3, 83288208
1991   Techno-economic networks and irreversibility (Michel Callon) 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2442190
1991   Computers, Networks and Education (Alan Kay) 3, 4, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 5, 8122581051
1992    Notes on the Theory of the Actor Network (John Law) 3, 2, 3, 2, 1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 2, 2, 42184170
1993Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins (Larry Cuban) 5000
1998   The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet! (Alan Kay) 2, 3, 1, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 4, 62346853
2004    Scratch (John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick) 8, 5, 5, 6, 8, 6, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6, 12142012598
2005    Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 1, 4, 2, 2, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, 1, 2, 10231710294

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