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The Importance of Information Technology Attitudes and Competencies in Primary and Secondary Education

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Since the early days of Information Technology (IT) in education, attitudes and competencies of students (and later teachers) have been in the domain of interest of researchers, because they appeared to be an important factor in the decision to use IT in educational practice. In 1995 the US Office of Technology Assessment (US Congress, 1995) reported that helping teachers 'effectively incorporate technology into the teaching and learning process is one of the most important steps the nation can take to make the most of past and continuing investments in educational technology” (p. 8). Although during the 1970s the study of effective incorporation into teaching and learning often focused on the specific impact an IT intervention might have on student learning (Marshall and Cox, 2008), by the mid-1980s the emphasis had shifted toward the study of intervening variables such as attitudes and competencies. This was in part due to the low recorded level of IT usage by teachers and students in spite of large increases in IT resources in schools and informal educational settings (Marshall and Cox, 2008). Some specific examples serve to add emphasis to this point:
  • Although the Second Information Technology in Education Study confirmed a rapid improvement in the student-computer ratios at all levels of education during the late 1990s worldwide, the study also showed that the actual integration of computers in classrooms remained limited (Pelgrum and Anderson, 1999).
  • Only about one-third of US teachers used computers on a regular basis at the end of the twentieth century, although the majority had computers in their classrooms (Becker et al., 1999).
  • Even as of 2006, in only 10 of 32 countries studied by the Program of International Student Assessment did students report using computers frequently (a few times per week or more) in spite of the fact that more than 90% had access to computers in school (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2005, as reported by Voogt, 2008).
  • Simply placing technology in schools has not been sufficient to ensure educationally relevant use.
    Von Gerald Knezek, Rhonda Christensen im Buch International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education (2009) im Text The Importance of Information Technology Attitudes and Competencies in Primary and Secondary Education

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    Personen
    KB IB clear
    Albert Bandura, Rhonda Christensen, Chris Dede, Ricky Fluke, R. Hancock, Gerald Knezek, Donald G. Knezek, E. M Rogers, A. Shoho, Lajeane G. Thomas, Joke Voogt, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky

    Begriffe
    KB IB clear
    Computercomputer, Early AdopterEarly Adopter, early majorityearly majority, Informationstechnikinformation technology, innovatorinnovator, laggardlaggard, late majoritylate majority, Lernenlearning, Will, Skill, Tool - ModelWill, Skill, Tool - Model
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    Bücher
    Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
    1930Mind in Society (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 5, 4, 7, 11, 5, 4, 5, 3, 17, 4, 8, 1213718121367
    1962   Diffusion of Innovations (E. M Rogers) 4, 1, 4, 8, 2, 3, 6, 3, 7, 1, 5, 847118354
    1986Social Foundations of Thought and Action (Albert Bandura) 23100
    1998Self-efficacy (Albert Bandura) 26000
    2009International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education (Joke Voogt, Gerald Knezek) 8, 6, 6, 8, 6, 7, 11, 3, 9, 7, 8, 2013220920379
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    Texte
    Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
    2000Toward a structural model of technology integration (Gerald Knezek, Rhonda Christensen, R. Hancock, A. Shoho) 3, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 5, 1, 1, 3, 1, 4614103
    2003    Testing a Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration (Gerald Knezek, Rhonda Christensen, Ricky Fluke) 2, 4, 2, 1, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 3, 4, 8558145
    2009    Theoretical Perspectives Influencing the Use of Information Technology in Teaching and Learning (Chris Dede) 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 246279
    2009    IT and Curriculum Processes (Joke Voogt) 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 234245
    2009    Information, Communications, and Educational Technology Standards for Students, Teachers, and School Leaders (Lajeane G. Thomas, Donald G. Knezek) 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 237271

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