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Definitionen von Stephen Downes

Auf dieser Seite sind alle im Biblionetz vorhandenen Definitionen von Stephen Downes aufgelistet.

argumentum ad baculum
argumentum ad hominem
  • There are three major forms of Attacking the Person:
    1. ad hominem (abusive): instead of attacking an assertion, the argument attacks the person who made the assertion.
    2. ad hominem (circumstantial): instead of attacking an assertion the author points to the relationship between the person making the assertion and the person's circumstances.
    3. ad hominem (tu quoque): this form of attack on the person notes that a person does not practise what he
      preaches.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
  • The person presenting an argument is attacked instead of the argument itself. This takes many forms. For example, the person's character, nationality or religion may be attacked. Alternatively, it may be pointed out that a person stands to gain from a favourable outcome. Or, finally, a person may be attacked by association, or by the company he keeps.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
argumentum ad hominem tu quoque
argumentum ad ignorantiam
  • Arguments of this form assume that since something has not been proven false, it is therefore true. Conversely, such an argument may assume that since something has not been proven true, it is therefore false.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
argumentum ad misericordiam
argumentum ad populum
  • A proposition is held to be true because it is widely held to be true or is held to be true by some (usually upper crust) sector of the population. This fallacy is sometimes also called the "Appeal to Emotion" because emotional appeals often sway the population as a whole.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
argumentum ad verecundiam
  • While sometimes it may be appropriate to cite an authority to support a point, often it is not. In particular, an appeal to authority is inappropriate if:
    1. the person is not qualified to have an expert opinion on the subject,
    2. experts in the field disagree on this issue.
    3. the authority was making a joke, drunk, or otherwise not being serious
    A variation of the fallacious appeal to authority is hearsay. An argument from hearsay is an argument which depends on second or third hand sources.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
false dilemma
  • A limited number of options (usually two) is given, while in reality there are more options. A false dilemma is an illegitimate use of the "or" operator.
    Putting issues or opinions into "black or white" terms is a common instance of this fallacy.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
slippery slope
  • In order to show that a proposition P is unacceptable, a sequence of increasingly unacceptable events is shown to follow from P. A slippery slope is an illegitimate use of the "if-then" operator.
    von Stephen Downes im Text Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies (1996)
straw man

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