Searching for and dealing with health-related information on the Internet is a self-regulated process. Accordingly, how health-related information is selected, perceived, and produced by individuals in online informational environments may be affected by people´s motivation. In this chapter, we examine how motivated information processing influences how people deal with health-related information online. After a general introduction to the topic, the chapter deals with two aspects of the role of motivated processing of health-related information: On the one hand, people´s motivation is fueled by particular concepts that they hold about health in general, about health-related knowledge, and about specific health topics. Accordingly, we analyze in the first part of the chapter how people´s individual health concepts influence their information processing, discuss the impact of people´s health-related epistemological beliefs, and examine in what way their previous opinions of a health-related topic affect how they handle information. On the other hand, people´s motivations in information processing are related to their emotions. Thus, we discuss in the second part of the chapter how health-related information on the Internet can be a source of fear for laypeople and how patients who have received a medical diagnosis process information in order to cope with the threat they experience from their illness. In our presentation of research results we also analyze how people´s motivated information processing interacts with characteristics of the information they encounter in online environments. Finally, we sum up our findings and point out implications for future research and practical applications.