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Logo Programming and Problem Solving

Erstpublikation in: Paper presented at an American Educational Research Association Symposium (Montreal, Canada, April 1983) as "Chameleon in the Classroom: Developing Roles for Computers."
Publikationsdatum:

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This paper discusses five points related to developmental research on children learning to do Logo programming:
  1. systematic developmental research documenting what children are learning as they learn to program is necessary;
  2. Logo is cognitively complex beyond its early steps and difficult to learn without instructional guidance;
  3. the pedagogical fantasy that Logo can serve as a stand-alone center in classrooms for learning programming and thinking skills does not work;
  4. after a year of programming in Logo, following the discovery-learning pedagogy, a group of children did not display greater planning skills than a matched group who did not do Logo programming; and
  5. it is necesary to develop an instructional science for teaching programming and to rethink the educational goals programming is meant to fill.
Findings of three studies on children learning to program and the cognitive outcomes of such programming are reported: the first was a study of the level of programming expertise children had developed by the year's end; the second consisted of systematic probes of the depth of understanding of programming concepts in studies with individual children; and the last asked whether children doing programming developed planning skills that they spontaneously transferred beyond programming.
Von Klappentext im Text Logo Programming and Problem Solving (1983)
Roy PeaIn the world of educational computing, programming is a major activity, occupying several million precollege students a year in this country alone. As yet very little is known about what kinds of cognitive activities computer programming requires and whether, in the classroom contexts that are representative of microcomputer use in schools today, children are capable of making substantial progress in learning to program. In the cyclical program-development process of problem understanding, program design and planning, programming code composition, debugging, and comprehension, what gains do children make on the many developmental fronts represented in the complex of mental activities required by programming? Do conceptual limitations impede their understanding of any of the central programming concepts, such as flow of control structures, variables, procedurality, and the like? We have begun to address aspects of these questions in our developmental research on children learning to do Logo programming.
I would like to make five points which will be explicated in the remainder of this paper:
  1. Systematic developmental research documenting what children are learning as they learn to program is necessary, rather than existing anecdotes. Our studies focus on Logo because it is a programming environment that is exciting to many educators, it has great potential for introducing children to many of the central concepts involved in programming and problem solving, and because grand claims have been made for how it promotes learning to program, as well as metacognitive skills such as planning and strategic problem solving.
  2. Logo is cognitively complex beyond its early steps, and quite difficult to learn without instructional guidance, even if students are intellectually engaged with that learning. While the semantics and syntax of Logo are readily learned, the pragmatics - how to arrange lines of legal programming code to achieve specific ends - is a great challenge.
  3. The pedagogical fantasy (e. g., Byte, August 1982; Papert, 1980) - that Logo can serve as a stand-alone center in classrooms for learning programming and thinking skills - does not work. Teacher training will be necessary for programming skills to develop very far, and problem-solving skills may need to be taught directly rather than assumed to emerge spontaneously from learning Logo.
  4. After a year's experience of programming in Logo, following the discovery-learning pedagogy advocated for Logo, two classes of 25 children (8- to 9-year-olds, 11- to 12-year-olds), each with six computers, did not display greater planning skills than a matched group who did not do Logo programming.
  5. We need to develop an instructional science for programming if that is what we wish children to learn, but we also need to rethink, in ways suggested by Midian Kurland, the educational goals that programming is meant to fulfill.
Von Roy Pea im Text Logo Programming and Problem Solving (1983)

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Personen
KB IB clear
D. Midian Kurland, Seymour Papert, Roy Pea

Aussagen
KB IB clear
Informatik/Programmieren/Logo/Javascript ist das neue Latein
Problemlöseargument: Informatikkenntnisse helfen auch beim Lösen von Problemen ausserhalb der Informatikproblem solving argument: knowledge in computer science fosters problem solving
Problemlösekompetenz ist domänenspezifisch

Begriffe
KB IB clear
Computercomputer, Entdeckendes Lerneninquiry learning, Kinderchildren, Lernenlearning, LOGO (Programmiersprache)LOGO (programming language), Problemlösefähigkeitproblem solving skills, Programmierenprogramming, Schuleschool, Verstehenunderstanding
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1982    Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 10, 4, 6, 12, 11, 14, 16, 6, 24, 6, 17, 3420045344582
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1984    On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming (Roy Pea, D. Midian Kurland) 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 3, 2, 2, 4, 3, 826158139

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Eltern, LehrerIn, Unterricht

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