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Learning computer science concepts with Scratch

Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari
Publikationsdatum:
Zu finden in: Computer Science Education 3/2013 (Seite 239 bis 264), 2013
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iconZusammenfassungen

We posed the following questions at the beginning of our research project:
  • Is Scratch effective for teaching and learning CS?
  • How does the effectiveness of learning vary for different CS concepts?
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
From the perspective of CS educators, it is important to investigate if Scratch can actually facilitate the learning of concepts and to characterize how the concepts are learned, as a basis for preparing learning materials, and for training teachers and other mentors.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
We investigated the use of Scratch to teach concepts of CS. We developed new learning materials based upon the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and used them in middle-school classrooms. The research results showed that most students were able to achieve a reasonable level of understanding of CS concepts. Difficulties were encountered in teaching specific topics, such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. These difficulties might be rooted in the tendency of students to reduce the level of abstraction, but we believe that the difficulties can be solved by careful teaching, where the relationships between concepts and their implementation in language constructs are taught explicitly and in detail.
Overall, Scratch has proved to be a viable platform for teaching CS, but we do not believe that effective learning will be achieved by itself without close and effective mentoring. Left to themselves, many students will only use Scratch as a tool for creating media and learn very little.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)

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Personen
KB IB clear
Lorin W. Anderson, Michal Armoni, Tim Bell, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Karen Brennan, Paul Curzon, Evelyn Eastmond, Mike Fellows, Idit Harel, Orit Hazzan, Yasmin B. Kafai, Caitlin Kelleher, David R. Krathwohl, John Maloney, Peter W. McOwan, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Amon Millner, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Mitchel Resnick, Anthony Robins, Eric Rosenbaum, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Natalie Rusk, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Ian H. Witten

Aussagen
KB IB clear
Blockbasierte Sprachen erleichtern den Einstieg ins Programmierenblock programming interfaces improve novice programming performance

Begriffe
KB IB clear
Abstraktion, Alice.org, computer science unpluggedcomputer science unplugged, Fundamentale Ideen der Informatik, Informatikcomputer science, Informatik-Didaktikdidactics of computer science, K1 knowledge / Wissen, K2 comprehension / Verständnis, K3 application / Anwendung, K4 analysis / Analyse, K5 synthesis / Synthese, K6 evaluation / Beurteilung, Konstruktionismusconstructionism, Lernenlearning, Programmierenprogramming, Programmieren für KinderProgramming for kids, Scratch, Taxonomietaxonomy, Taxonomie von Bloom (kognitiver Bereich), Taxonomien von Bloom, Unterrichtsmaterial
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 6, 6, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 4, 8, 4, 20903820942
2000A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing (Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl) 1, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, 1, 4, 3, 4, 4, 229221009
2003Computer Science Education 2/20038, 1, 3, 2, 2, 4, 2, 1, 1, 4, 6, 497467
2006    Computer Science Unplugged (Tim Bell, Ian H. Witten, Mike Fellows) 6, 11, 8, 13, 4, 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 10, 22493122813
2008ITiCSE 2008 (June Amillo, Cary Laxer, Ernestina Menasalvas Ruiz, Alison Young) 5, 7, 5, 4, 9, 2, 8, 4, 4, 12, 7, 321426532562
2011ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 7, 9, 4, 9, 8, 1, 7, 5, 7, 16, 11, 2035170201953
2013     Computer Science Concepts in Scratch (Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 4, 2, 4, 4, 6, 4, 4, 2, 3, 4, 2, 41416474
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
2003    Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 4400
2003    How Students Attempt to Reduce Abstraction in the Learning of Mathematics and in the Learning of Computer Science (Orit Hazzan) 4100
2005    Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 2, 2, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, 1, 2, 10, 2, 823178304
2008Engaging with computer science through magic shows (Paul Curzon, Peter W. McOwan) 5200
2009    Scratch: Programming for All (Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai) 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 1, 2, 4, 7, 6, 3, 10302810382
2011   Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 2, 3, 6, 4, 3, 1, 5, 4, 7, 10, 1, 41094268

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