New technologies have pushed traditional museums to take their exhibitions beyond the barrier of a museum’s walls and enhance their functions: education and entertainment. Earth Science Digital Museum (ESDM) is such an emerging effort in this field. It serves as a platform for Earth Scientists to build a Web community to share knowledge about the Earth and is of to benefit the general public for their life-long learning. After analyzing the purposes and requirements of ESDM, we present here our basic philosophy of ESDM and a four-layer hierarchical architecture for enhancing the structure of ESDM via Internet. It is a Web-based application to enable specimens to be exhibited, shared and preserved in digital form, and to provide the functionalities of interoperability. One of the key components of ESDM is the development of a metadata set for describing Earth Science specimens and their digital representations, which is particularly important for building ESDM. Practical demonstrations show that ESDM is suitable for formal and informal Earth Science education, including classroom education, online education and life-long learning.