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When Each One Has One

Technology as a Change Agent in the Classroom
Gary R. Morrison, Steven M. Ross, Deborah L. Lowther
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Technology has long been viewed as a means to deliver instruction since the lantern slide projector was introduced into the classroom in the late 1800’s. This conception of technology has guided its use through the last century with the introduction the overhead projector, 16mm film projector, television, and more recently microcomputers and PDAs in the K-12 classroom. The U.S. Congress added support to this approach with the passage of the National Defense Education Act as a reaction to Sputnik in 1957 that resulted in the placement of overhead projectors in many K-12 classrooms to improve instruction. While Clark’s (1983) research suggests that technology as a mere delivery device does not enhance learning (separate from the associated instructional strategies), school districts continue to purchase additional technology and new technologies to improve student achievement with little if any documented return on the investment. Recent data indicate that 61% of the homes in the United States and 93% of the instructional classrooms have access to computers (Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2007). Yet, recent research indicates that fourth and eight graders are more likely to use computers to play games while eleventh graders are more likely to write papers (Day, Janus, & Davis, 2005). While many researchers agree with Clark and have abandoned the media comparison research agenda to identify learning gains attributable to technology, a question still remains as to what effects technology might have on instruction and the classroom environment. In this paper we will examine how a technological innovation affected changes in the instruction and the classroom environment that subsequently resulted in improved student achievement and performance during a three-year study.
Von Gary R. Morrison, Steven M. Ross, Deborah L. Lowther im Text When Each One Has One (2007)

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