In the last chapter, "Elementary School Children's Images of Science," Aaron Brandes introduces the framework of
image of science as a tool for understanding and enhancing children's science learning. Science-education research
has established that children's science learning depends critically on their ideas about science, scientists, and
experimentation. Brandes extends this research to include affective components such as the child's identification with
science or alienation from it. He describes three studies with elementary-school students, designed to probe children's
images of science. The studies show that children's excitement about science decreases with age, even as their ideas
about science become, in many ways, more sophisticated. Furthermore, the process by which new knowledge is
generated remains mysterious, leaving most children on the "outside" of science. In his conclusions, Brandes proposes
criteria for evaluating science activities, based on his images-of-science framework.
Drawing on results from the study of perspective-taking, Ackermann argues that the ability to decenter from one's own
standpoint and to take another person's point of view requires the construction of cognitive invariants: a recasting of the
world's stabilities that transcends any given viewpoint. According to Ackermann, this separation is a necessary step
toward the construction of a deeper understanding; adopting a god's eye view is by no means contrary to situating
one's own stance in the world. Ackermann notes that the process of learning includes opposites: forging relationships
and creating separations at the same time. One cannot relate without, at times, separating.