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Pocket PiCoMap

a case study in designing and assessing a handheld concept mapping tool for learners
Kathleen Luchini, Chris Quintana, Elliot Soloway
Erstpublikation in: Conference on Human Factors and Computing Systems
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Elliot SolowayOur project explores the benefits and challenges of using handheld computers to support learners in creating concept maps (a type of visual outline). By synthesizing research on small user interfaces with guidelines for building desktop learning tools, we identified potential challenges to using handhelds for complex learning tasks and developed new design guidelines to address these issues. We applied these guidelines to the design of Pocket PiCoMap, a learner-centered concept mapping tool for handheld Pocket PCs. As part of a 9-month classroom study, students used both the handheld Pocket PiCoMap and a comparable desktop concept mapping tool called PiViT. The goal of this comparison between handheld and desktop tools was to better understand how the different form factors of these computers impact students' work processes and products. Our results suggest that students can successfully complete complex learning activities using handheld tools, and that specialized supports (called scaffolds) can be used to help students create better concept maps. This study also identifies several areas where handheld learning tools need further improvements, such as helping students organize their work within the confines of small handheld screens, and we discuss ways in which scaffolds might be used to improve future handheld learning tools.
Von Kathleen Luchini, Chris Quintana, Elliot Soloway Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt im Text Pocket PiCoMap (2003)
Raimond ReichertThis paper reports on a case study in designing and assessing a particular piece of handheld software for educational use in schools. As there is some debate on mobile learning in higher education but few concrete projects, this paper is reviewed here to illustrate the challenges of designing educational applications for mobile devices in contexts other than higher education.
The project developed a handheld concept mapping tool, Pocket PiCoMap, to support students during concept mapping activities. The paper outlines the design guidelines that were followed in designing the user interface of the tool. Particular emphasis is on a number of scaffolds. For example, the tool provides a link scaffold in which the direction of a relationship between two ideas is made explicit as a textual statement. The reason for this scaffold is the observation that students often have problems interpreting directed relationships.
Of particular interest here are the results of a 9-months classroom study in which the use of Pocket PiCoMap was compared with the use of a desktop PC-based concept mapping tool, PiViT. Regarding the overall comparison of the handheld tool vs. desktop-based tool, the authors were pleasantly surprised by their students’ success in creating concept maps on their handhelds. For example, the study showed that the link scaffold was very effective in assisting students in drawing correct relationships.
However, there were several areas where the small form of the mobile devices made them more difficult to use. For example, the evaluation of the concept maps showed that 50% of the Pocket PiCoMap concept maps were scored unreadable. That is, less than half of the map elements (concepts, relationships) were visible. In contrast, none of the PiViT maps were considered unreadable. 30% percept of PiCoMap maps had orphan nodes (concept nodes that were unconnected to the rest of the concept map), whereas only 1 out of 16 PiViT maps contained orphan nodes.
The results of this case study concern usability issues of handheld applications due to space restrictions. These issues are most probably independent of the age of the users and should therefore be of interest to designers of any mobile educational application. Design guidelines such as those outlined in this paper are needed which take the devices’ restrictions into account.
[Quelle: http://www.elearning-reviews.org/]
Von Raimond Reichert, erfasst im Biblionetz am 25.02.2005

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KB IB clear
Henry Becker, William Bobrowsky, John Seely Brown, Allan Collins, Michael Curtis, D. B. Gowin, Kathleen Luchini, S. E. Newmann, Joseph D. Novak, Chris Quintana, Elliot Soloway

KB IB clear
Concept MapConcept Map, Concept Mapping SoftwareConcept Mapping Software, Handheld / PDAHandheld, Handheld / PDA in schoolHandheld / PDA in school, pico map
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1985    Learning how to learn (Joseph D. Novak, D. B. Gowin) 4, 5, 5, 3, 2, 7, 3, 1, 2, 1, 2, 123936121721
1989Knowing, Learning, and Instruction (L. B. Resnick) 5, 1, 3, 5, 2, 2, 3, 1, 5, 2, 4, 1411812141602
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1989   Cognitive Apprenticeship (Allan Collins, John Seely Brown, S. E. Newmann) 5, 2, 5, 1, 2, 3, 3, 6, 1, 4, 4, 229611222560
2000   Who’s Wired and Who’s Not (Henry Becker) 2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 4, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2662558
2002    Handheld Use in K-12 (Michael Curtis, Kathleen Luchini, William Bobrowsky, Chris Quintana, Elliot Soloway) 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 6586877

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