/ en / Traditional / mobile

Beats Biblionetz - Personen

Definitionen von Matthew J. Koehler

Auf dieser Seite sind alle im Biblionetz vorhandenen Definitionen von Matthew J. Koehler aufgelistet.

Content Knowledge
  • Content Knowledge is knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught, including, for example, middle school science, high school history, undergraduate art history, or graduate level astrophysics. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly among content-areas and it is critically important that teachers understand this about the subject matter that they teach. As Shulman (1986) noted, this includes knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge. In the case of art appreciation, such knowledge would include knowledge of art history, famous paintings, sculptures, artists and their historical contexts, as well as knowledge of aesthetic and psychological theories for evaluating art.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 5
  • Content knowledge (CK) is knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1026
  • Content knowledge is knowledge about the subject matter that is to be learned or taught, including, for example, middle school science, high school history, undergraduate art history, or graduate-level astrophysics. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly among content areas, and it is critically important that teachers understand the disciplinary “habits of mind" appropriate to the subject matter that they teach. As Shulman (1986) noted, content includes knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, methods of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge in a particular discipline. In the case of art appreciation, for example, such knowledge would include knowledge of art history, famous paintings, sculptures, the influence of artists’ historical and social contexts, as well as knowledge of aesthetic and psychological theories for understanding and evaluating art.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
  • Pedagogical content knowledge is the intersection and interaction of pedagogy and content knowledge. PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s (1986) conceptualization of teaching knowledge applicable to a specific content area. It covers essential knowledge of teaching and learning content-based curricula, as well as assessment and reporting of that learning. An awareness of students’ prior knowledge, alternative teaching strategies in a particular discipline, common content-related misconceptions, how to forge links and connections among different content-based ideas, and the flexibility that comes from exploring alternative ways of looking at the same idea or problem, and more, are all expressions of pedagogical content knowledge and are essential to effective teaching.
  • Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is the intersection and interaction of pedagogy and content knowledge. PCK is consistent with, and similar to Shulman’s (1986) conceptualization of teaching knowledge applicable to a specific content area. It covers knowledge of the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, expressed, for example, in the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment and pedagogy. An awareness of students’ prior knowledge, alternative teaching strategies, common content-related misconceptions, how to forge links and connections among different content-based ideas, and the flexibility that comes from exploring alternative ways of looking at the same idea or problem, and more, are all expressions of pedagogical content knowledge, and are essential to effective teaching.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 7
  • The idea of pedagogical content knowledge is consistent with, and similar to, Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content. This knowledge includes knowing what teaching approaches fit the content, and likewise, knowing how elements of the content can be arranged for better teaching. This knowledge is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and also from the general pedagogical knowledge shared by teachers across disciplines. PCK is concerned with the representation and formulation of concepts, pedagogical techniques, knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn, knowledge of students’ prior knowledge, and theories of epistemology. It also involves knowledge of teaching strategies that incorporate appropriate conceptual representations in order to address learner difficulties and misconceptions and foster meaningful understanding. It also includes knowledge of what the students bring to the learning situation, knowledge that might be either facilitative or dysfunctional for the particular learning task at hand. This knowledge of students includes their strategies, prior conceptions (both ‘‘naı¨ve’’ and instructionally produced), misconceptions that they are likely to have about a particular domain, and potential misapplications of prior knowledge.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1027
Pedagogical Knowledge
  • Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning and how it encompasses, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This is a generic form of knowledge that is involved in all issues of student learning, classroom management, lesson plan development and implementation, and student evaluation. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods to be used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in their classroom.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1026
  • Pedagogical Knowledge is deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning, encompassing educational purposes, values, aims, and more. This is a generic form of knowledge that applies to student learning, classroom management, lesson plan development and implementation, and student evaluation. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills in differentiated ways, and how they develop habits of mind and dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 6
  • Pedagogical knowledge is deep knowledge about the processes and practices of teaching and learning, encompassing educational purposes, goals, values, strategies, and more. This is a generic form of knowledge that applies to student learning, classroom management, instructional planning and implementation, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom, the nature of the learners’ needs and preferences, and strategies for assessing student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills in differentiated ways, as well as how they develop habits of mind and dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.
Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
  • Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) includes an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 8
  • Technological content knowledge (TCK) includes an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. In planning for instruction, content and technology are often considered separately. It is assumed that developing content is what content experts do (i.e., historians develop history and physicists develop physics), whereas technologists develop technologies (e.g., hypertexts or overhead projectors) and technology integration strategies. When we think of subject matter that students study in school, we often do not think of curriculum content’s relationships to the digital and nondigital technologies that learners and teachers use. Historically, however, technology and knowledge have been deeply connected. New understandings in medicine, history, archeology, and physics have emerged, in part, from the development of new technologies that afford the representation and manipulation of information and ideas in novel and fruitful ways. Using new technologies (or existing technologies in new ways) can prompt fundamental changes in the nature of the disciplines themselves. Roentgen’s discovery of xrays, for example, changed both diagnostic processes and the nature of knowledge in medicine. The carbon-14 dating technique similarly revolutionized the field of archeology. Consider also how the advent of the digital computer changed the nature of physics and mathematics work, placing a greater emphasis upon the role of simulation in understanding phenomena.
  • Technological content knowledge (TCK) is knowledge about the manner in which technology and content are reciprocally related. Although technology constrains the kinds of representations possible, newer technologies often afford newer and more varied representations and greater flexibility in navigating across these representations. Teachers need to know not just the subject matter they teach but also the manner in which the subject matter can be changed by the application of technology.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1028
Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK)
  • Underlying truly effective and highly skilled teaching with technology, we argue, is technological pedagogical content knowledge. TPACK is different from knowledge of its individual component concepts and their intersections. It arises instead from multiple interactions among content, pedagogical, technological, and contextual knowledge. TPACK encompasses understanding and communicating representations of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that apply technologies appropriately to teach content in differentiated ways according to students’ learning needs; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress conceptual challenges; knowledge of students’ prior content-related understanding and epistemological assumptions, along with related technological expertise or lack thereof; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing understanding to help students develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. TPACK is a form of professional knowledge that technologically and pedagogically adept, curriculum-oriented teachers use when they teach.
  • Underlying truly meaningful and highly skilled teaching with technology, we argue, is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). TPCK is different from knowledge of all three concepts individually and in their individual intersections. It arises instead from multiple interactions among content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge. TPCK encompasses understanding the representations of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that apply technologies in constructive ways to teach content in differentiated ways according to students’ learning needs; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress conceptual challenges; knowledge of students’ prior content-related understanding and epistemological assumptions; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing understanding to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. TPCK is a form of knowledge that expert teachers bring into play any time they teach.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 10
  • Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) is an emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three components (content, pedagogy, and technology). This knowledge is different from knowledge of a disciplinary or technology expert and also from the general pedagogical knowledge shared by teachers across disciplines. TPCK is the basis of good teaching with technology and requires an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1028
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
  • Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) is knowledge of the existence, components, and capabilities of various technologies as they are used in teaching and learning settings, and conversely, knowing how teaching might change as the result of using particular technologies. This might include an understanding that a range of tools exists for a particular task, the ability to choose a tool based on its fitness, strategies for using the tool’s affordances, and knowledge of pedagogical strategies and the ability to apply those strategies for use of technologies. This includes knowledge of tools for maintaining class records, attendance, and grading, and knowledge of generic technology-based ideas such as WebQuests, discussion boards, and chat rooms.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1028
  • Technological pedagogical knowledge is an understanding of how teaching and learning change when particular technologies are used. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools and resources as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. Developing TPK requires building an understanding of the potential benefits and limitations of particular technologies as they can be applied within particular types of learning activities, as well as the educational contexts within which these technologically supported activities function best.
  • Technological pedagogical knowledge is an understanding of how teaching and learning change when particular technologies are used. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. It requires building a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of particular technologies and the educational contexts within which they function best.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 7
Technology Knowledge
  • Technology knowledge (TK) is knowledge about standard technologies, such as books, chalk and blackboard, and more advanced technologies, such as the Internet and digital video. This involves the skills required to operate particular technologies. In the case of digital technologies, this includes knowledge of operating systems and computer hardware, and the ability to use standard sets of software tools such as word processors, spreadsheets, browsers, and e-mail. TK includes knowledge of how to install and remove peripheral devices, install and remove software programs, and create and archive documents.
    von Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2006) auf Seite 1027
  • Technology knowledge is always in a state of flux—more so than the other two “core” knowledge domains in the TPCK framework (content and pedagogical knowledge). This makes defining and acquiring it notoriously difficult. Technology is continually changing, and keeping up-to-date with technological developments can become a full-time job, in and of itself. This also means that any definition of technology knowledge is in danger of becoming outdated by the time this text has been edited, proofread and published. There are, however, certain ways of thinking about and working with technology that can apply to all technological tools. In that sense, our definition of TK is close to that of Fluency of Information Technology (FITness) as proposed by Committee on Information Technology Literacy of the National Research Council (NRC, 1999). They argue that FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives. FITness therefore requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. This conceptualization of TK does not posit an "end state" but rather sees it developmentally--as evolving over a lifetime of generative, open-ended interactions with technology.
    von Judith Harris, Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehlerim Text Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (2007) auf Seite 6
  • Technological knowledge is always in a state of flux - more so than content and pedagogical knowledge. This makes defining and acquiring it notoriously difficult. Keeping up to date with technological developments can easily become overwhelming to time-starved teachers. This also means that any definition of technology knowledge is in danger of becoming outdated by the time this text has been published. There are, however, ways of thinking about and working with technology that can apply to all technological tools, regardless of when they emerged. In that sense, our definition of TK is similar to the notion of Fluency of Information Technology (“FITness”) as proposed by the Committee on Information Technology Literacy of the National Research Council (NRC, 1999). The committee argues that FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that people understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives. FITness therefore requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. Also, this conceptualization of TK does not posit an "end state," but rather assumes TK to be developmental, evolving over a lifetime of generative interactions with multiple technologies.