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Beats Biblionetz - Personen

Definitionen von Ray Kurzweil

Auf dieser Seite sind alle im Biblionetz vorhandenen Definitionen von Ray Kurzweil aufgelistet.

Algorithmus
  • A sequence of rules and instructions that describes a procedure to solve a problem. A Computer program expresses one or more algorithms in a manner understandable by a computer.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 298
Bewusstsein
  • The ability to have subjective experience. The ability of a being, animal, or entity to have self-perception and self-awareness. The ability to feel. A key question in the twenty-first Century is whether Computers will achieve consciousness (which their human creators are considered to have).
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 300
Biologie
  • The study of life-forms. In evolutionary terms, the emergence of patterns of matter and energy that could survive and replicate to form future generations.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 299
Chaos
  • The amount of disorder or unpredictable behavior in a System. In reference to the Law of Time and Chaos, chaos refers to the quantity of random and unpredictable events that are relevant to a process.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 299
Chaostheorie
  • The study of patterns and emergent behavior in complex Systems comprised of many unpredictable elements (e.g., the weather).
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 299
Computer
  • A machine that implements an algorithm. A Computer transforms data according to the specifications of an algorithm. A programmable Computer allows the algorithm to be changed.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 300
Digitalisierung
  • Varying in discrete Steps. The use of combinations of bits to represent data in computation. Contrasted with analog.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 301
Entropie
  • In thermodynamics, a measure of the chaos (unpredictable movement) of particles and unavailable energy in a physical System of many components. In other contexts, a term used to describe the extent of randomness and disorder of a System.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 301
Evolution
  • A process in which diverse entities (sometimes called organisms) compete for limited resources in an environment, with the more successful organisms able to survive and reproduce (to a greater extent) into subsequent generations. Over many such generations, the organisms become better adapted at survival. Over generations, the order (suitability of Information for a purpose) of the design of the organisms increases, with the purpose being survival.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 301
Expertensystem
  • A Computer program, based on various artificial intelligence techniques, that solves a problem using a database of expert knowledge on a topic. Also a system that enables such a database to become available to the nonexpert user. A branch of the artificial intelligence field.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 302
General Problem Solver (GPS)
  • A procedure and program developed by Allen M search and by applying rules to generate the alternatives at each branch in the recursive expansion of possible sequences. GPS uses a procedure to measure the "distance" from the goal.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 302
Gödelsches Theorem
  • A theorem postulated by Kurt Gödel, a Czech mathematician, that states that in a mathematical System powerful enough to generate the natural numbers, there inevitably exist propositions that can be neither proved nor disproved.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 302
Konnektivismus
  • An approach to studying intelligence and to creating intelligent solutions to problems. Connectionism is based on storing problem-solving knowledge as a pattern of connections among a very large number of simple processing units operating in parallel.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 300
Künstliche Intelligenz (KI / AI)
  • The field of research that attempts to emulate human intelligence in a machine. Fields within AI include knowledge-based systems, expert systems, pattern recognition, automatic learning, natural-language understanding, robotics, and others.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 298
Künstliches Leben (Artificial life)
  • Simulated organisms, each including a set of behavior and reproduction rules (a simulated "genetic code"), and a simulated environment. The simulated organisms simulate multiple generations of evolution. The term can refer to any seifreplicating pattern.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 298
Kybernetik
  • A term coined by Norbert Wiener to describe the "science of control and communication in animals and machines." Cybernetics is based on the theory that intelligent living beings adapt to their environments and accomplish objectives primarily by reacting to feedback from their surroundings.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 301
Leben
  • The ability of entities (usually organisms) to reproduce into future generations. Patterns of matter and energy that can perpetuate themselves and survive.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 305
Turing-Maschine
  • A simple abstract model of a computing machine, designed by Alan Turing in his 1936 paper "On Computable Numbers." The Turing machine is a fundamental concept in the theory of computaüon.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) auf Seite 313
Turing-Test
  • In a 1950 paper, Alan Turing describes his concept of the Turing Test, in which a human judge Interviews both a Computer and one or more human foils using terminals (so that the judge won't be prejudiced against the Computer for lacking a warm and fuzzy appearance). If the human judge is unable to reliably unmask the Computer (as an impostor human) then the Computer wins.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999) im Text Of Mind and Machine auf Seite 61
Watson
  • Millions of people witnessed the IBM computer named Watson play the natural-language game of Jeopardy! and obtain a higher score than the best two human players in the world combined. It should be noted that not only did Watson read and “understand” the subtle language in the Jeopardy! query (which includes such phenomena as puns and metaphors), but it obtained the knowledge it needed to come up with a response from understanding hundreds of millions of pages of natural-language documents including Wikipedia and other encyclopedias on its own. It needed to master virtually every area of human intellectual endeavor, including history, science, literature, the arts, culture, and more.
    von Ray Kurzweilim Buch How to Create a Mind (2012)