The ability to have subjective experience. The ability of a being, animal, or entity to have self-perception and self-awareness. The ability to feel. A key question in the twenty-first Century is whether Computers will achieve consciousness (which their human creators are considered to have).
In thermodynamics, a measure of the chaos (unpredictable movement) of particles and unavailable energy in a physical System of many components. In other contexts, a term used to describe the extent of randomness and disorder of a System.
A process in which diverse entities (sometimes called organisms) compete for limited resources in an environment, with the more successful organisms able to survive and reproduce (to a greater extent) into subsequent generations. Over many such generations, the organisms become better adapted at survival. Over generations, the order (suitability of Information for a purpose) of the design of the organisms increases, with the purpose being survival.
A Computer program, based on various artificial intelligence techniques, that solves a problem using a database of expert knowledge on a topic. Also a system that enables such a database to become available to the nonexpert user. A branch of the artificial intelligence field.
|General Problem Solver (GPS)|
A theorem postulated by Kurt Gödel, a Czech mathematician, that states that in a mathematical System powerful enough to generate the natural numbers, there inevitably exist propositions that can be neither proved nor disproved.
|Künstliche Intelligenz (KI / AI)|
The field of research that attempts to emulate human intelligence in a machine. Fields within AI include knowledge-based systems, expert systems, pattern recognition, automatic learning, natural-language understanding, robotics, and others.
|Künstliches Leben (Artificial life)|
Simulated organisms, each including a set of behavior and reproduction rules (a simulated "genetic code"), and a simulated environment. The simulated organisms simulate multiple generations of evolution. The term can refer to any seifreplicating pattern.
In a 1950 paper, Alan Turing describes his concept of the Turing Test, in which a human judge Interviews both a Computer and one or more human foils using terminals (so that the judge won't be prejudiced against the Computer for lacking a warm and fuzzy appearance). If the human judge is unable to reliably unmask the Computer (as an impostor human) then the Computer wins.
Millions of people witnessed the IBM computer named Watson play the
natural-language game of Jeopardy! and obtain a higher score than the best
two human players in the world combined. It should be noted that not only
did Watson read and “understand” the subtle language in the Jeopardy!
query (which includes such phenomena as puns and metaphors), but it
obtained the knowledge it needed to come up with a response from
understanding hundreds of millions of pages of natural-language documents
including Wikipedia and other encyclopedias on its own. It needed to master
virtually every area of human intellectual endeavor, including history,
science, literature, the arts, culture, and more.