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Blockbasierte Sprachen erleichtern den Einstieg ins Programmierenblock programming interfaces improve novice programming performance

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There is modest evidence that blocks can improve student learning compared to text.
Von R. Benjamin Shapiro, Matthew Ahrens im Text Beyond Blocks (2016)
Research indicates that learning a blocks language can improve later learning of a traditional textual language.
Von David Bau, Jeff Gray, Caitlin Kelleher, Josh Sheldon, Franklyn A. Turbak im Text Learnable Programming
We are particularly interested in visual programming environments because we believe that they are best able to foster learning of CS.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Of the nine student interviewed, seven mentioned the readability of the blocks as a feature that made them easier to use than the text-based alternative.
Von David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky im Text To Block or not to Block, That is the Question (2015)
These data show that students found the blocks-based programming approach of Snap! to be easier than Java, thus supporting the general view of blocks-based tools being easier for novice programmers.
Von David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky im Text To Block or not to Block, That is the Question (2015)
blocks-based programming environments have been found to be successful at engaging students in programming activities and providing learners with early successes with little or no formal instruction [24, 25]
Von David Weintrop im Text Minding the gap between blocks-based and text-based programming (2015)
This study supports the claim that block programming interfaces can significantly improve novice performance on some programming activities, specifically through increased time on task and quicker, more frequent achievement of programming goals. The study suggests that the block interface is an important component of BBPEs, which is worthy of future study and development.
Von Thomas W. Price, Tiffany Barnes im Konferenz-Band ICER 2015 im Text Comparing Textual and Block Interfaces in a Novice Programming Environment (2015)
Die Gründe für die weite Verbreitung grafischer Sprachen wie Scratch [Sc15] in den unteren Jahrgängen führe ich auf die schnelle und leichte Erlernbarkeit durch intuitive Bedienung und die anschauliche Umsetzbarkeit anwendungs- und kontextbezogener Problemlösungen, z.B. durch die Integration grafischer Elemente, wie Kostümwechsel von Objekten u.a., zurück. Insgesamt führt dies nach meinen Erfahrungen zur schnellen Umsetzbarkeit eigener (kontextbezogener) Schülerideen und damit insgesamt zu einer breiten Motivation der SchülerInnen.
Von Kerstin Strecker im Konferenz-Band Informatik allgemeinbildend begreifen im Text Grafische Programmiersprachen im Abitur (2015)
Despite its growing popularity and widespread use, relatively little work to date has focused on the conceptual and affective benefits of using blocks-based tools in formal educational contexts. Open questions remain about the effectiveness of the approach for helping students learn basic programming concepts and whether or not gains made in introductory environments, be they blocksbased or textual, effectively prepare students for future computer science learning opportunities. Further, it is unclear what the strengths and weaknesses of block-based programming tools are compared to isomorphic text-based alternatives.
Von David Weintrop im Konferenz-Band ICER 2015 im Text Comparing Text-based, Blocks-based, and Hybrid Blocks/Text Programming Tools (2015)
Block-based syntax is signi cantly easier to read for novices than common text-based programming languages. Even after exposure to both kinds of system, some aspects of blocks remain more readable for relative novices [23]. This has multiple aspects: block-based systems tend to use keywords rather than symbols or punctuation in commands, the keywords used tend to be closer to natural language, a more variable operand and operator syntax and sequence is used that partly mimics the grammar of natural languages, and the graphical representation of scopes (using bracket-style blocks) is easier to interpret than traditional text-based scope notation.
Von Michael Kölling, Neil C. C. Brown, Amjad AlTadmri im Konferenz-Band Proceedings of the Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2015, London, United Kingdom, November 9-11, 2015 im Text Frame-Based Editing (2015)
We believe the learnability of blocks languages arises from how they address the usability challenges underlying these three learning barriers:
  1. Learning a programming vocabulary is difficult. Blocks simplify this problem because picking a block from a palette is far easier than remembering a word: blocks rely on recognition instead of recall.
  2. Code is difficult to use because it presents a high cognitive load for new programmers. Blocks reduce the cognitive load by chunking code into a smaller number of meaningful elements.
  3. Assembling code is error-prone. Blocks help users assemble code without basic errors by providing constrained direct manipulation of structure (for example, two incompatible concepts do not have connecting parts).
Von David Bau, Jeff Gray, Caitlin Kelleher, Josh Sheldon, Franklyn A. Turbak im Text Learnable Programming

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